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Household income as a determinant of child labor and school enrollment in Brazil: Evidence from a social security reform

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  • de Carvalho Filho, Irineu E.

Abstract

This paper studies the effects of household income on labor participation and school enrollment of children aged 10 to 14 in Brazil using a social security reform as a source of exogenous variation in household income. We find that increased benefits are associated with increases in school enrollment for girls, as well as a smaller reduction in their labor participation, but find no effects for boys. We also uncover evidence that the gender of the benefit receiver matters for girls’ labor variables: only benefits received by females reduce girls’ work.

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Bibliographic Info

Paper provided by University Library of Munich, Germany in its series MPRA Paper with number 26046.

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Date of creation: 30 Jun 2010
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Handle: RePEc:pra:mprapa:26046

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Keywords: social security reform; child labor; family; school enrollment; old-age benefits; Brazil;

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  1. Marianne Bertrand & Douglas Miller & Sendhil Mullainathan, 2000. "Public Policy and Extended Families: Evidence from South Africa," NBER Working Papers 7594, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  2. Cally Ardington & Anne Case & Victoria Hosegood, 2008. "Labor supply responses to large social transfers: Longitudinal evidence from South Africa," Working Papers 1010, Princeton University, Woodrow Wilson School of Public and International Affairs, Research Program in Development Studies..
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  8. Kling, Jeffrey R, 2001. "Interpreting Instrumental Variables Estimates of the Returns to Schooling," Journal of Business & Economic Statistics, American Statistical Association, vol. 19(3), pages 358-64, July.
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  10. Bhalotra, Sonia & Heady, Christopher, 2001. "Child farm labour : the wealth paradox," Social Protection Discussion Papers 24088, The World Bank.
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  12. Duryea, Suzanne & Lam, David & Levison, Deborah, 2007. "Effects of economic shocks on children's employment and schooling in Brazil," Journal of Development Economics, Elsevier, vol. 84(1), pages 188-214, September.
  13. Edmonds, Eric V., 2006. "Child labor and schooling responses to anticipated income in South Africa," Journal of Development Economics, Elsevier, vol. 81(2), pages 386-414, December.
  14. Duncan Thomas, 1990. "Intra-Household Resource Allocation: An Inferential Approach," Journal of Human Resources, University of Wisconsin Press, vol. 25(4), pages 635-664.
  15. Eric V. Edmonds, 2005. "Does Child Labor Decline with Improving Economic Status?," Journal of Human Resources, University of Wisconsin Press, vol. 40(1).
  16. Kruger, Diana I., 2007. "Coffee production effects on child labor and schooling in rural Brazil," Journal of Development Economics, Elsevier, vol. 82(2), pages 448-463, March.
  17. Connelly, Rachel & DeGraff, Deborah S & Levison, Deborah, 1996. "Women's Employment and Child Care in Brazil," Economic Development and Cultural Change, University of Chicago Press, vol. 44(3), pages 619-56, April.
  18. Jean-Marie Baland & James A. Robinson, 2000. "Is Child Labor Inefficient?," Journal of Political Economy, University of Chicago Press, vol. 108(4), pages 663-679, August.
  19. Edmonds, Eric V., 2008. "Child Labor," Handbook of Development Economics, Elsevier.
  20. Robert A. Margo & T. Aldrich Finegan, 1996. "Compulsory Schooling Legislation and School Attendance in Turn-of-the-Century America: A "Natural Experiment" Approach," NBER Historical Working Papers 0089, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  21. Eliana Cardoso & Andre Portela Souza, 2004. "The Impact of Cash Transfers on Child Labor and School Attendance in Brazil," Vanderbilt University Department of Economics Working Papers 0407, Vanderbilt University Department of Economics.
  22. Ponczek, Vladimir Pinheiro, 2010. "Income and bargaining effects on education and health," Textos para discussão 216, Escola de Economia de São Paulo, Getulio Vargas Foundation (Brazil).
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Blog mentions

As found by EconAcademics.org, the blog aggregator for Economics research:
  1. Does Work Impede Child Learning? The Case of Senegal
    by UDADISI in UDADISI on 2012-08-13 21:20:00
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Cited by:
  1. L. Guarcello & S. Lyon, 2003. "Children's work and water access in Yemen," UCW Working Paper 53, Understanding Children's Work (UCW Programme).
  2. Javier Olivera & Blanca Zuluaga, 2013. "The ex-ante effects of non-contributory pensions in Colombia and Peru," Working Papers 201314, Geary Institute, University College Dublin.
  3. Ponczek, Vladimir, 2011. "Income and bargaining effects on education and health in Brazil," Journal of Development Economics, Elsevier, vol. 94(2), pages 242-253, March.
  4. de Hoop, Jacobus & Rosati, Furio C., 2013. "Cash Transfers and Child Labour," IZA Discussion Papers 7496, Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA).
  5. Banerjee, Abhijit V., 2004. "Educational policy and the economics of the family," Journal of Development Economics, Elsevier, vol. 74(1), pages 3-32, June.
  6. Jean-Jacques Dethier & Pierre Pestieau & Rabia Ali, 2011. "The impact of a minimum pension on old age poverty and its budgetary cost. Evidence from Latin America," REVISTA DE ECONOMÍA DEL ROSARIO, UNIVERSIDAD DEL ROSARIO.
  7. Kruger, Diana I., 2007. "Coffee production effects on child labor and schooling in rural Brazil," Journal of Development Economics, Elsevier, vol. 82(2), pages 448-463, March.
  8. Armando Barrientos & Juan Miguel Villa, 2013. "Antipoverty transfers and labour force participation effects," Brooks World Poverty Institute Working Paper Series 18513, BWPI, The University of Manchester.
  9. Pedro Rodrigues de OLIVEIRA & Ana Lúcia KASSOUF, 2012. "Impact Evaluation of the Brazilian Non-Contributory Pension Program Benefício de Prestação Continuada (BPC) on Family Welfare," Working Papers PIERI 2012-12, PEP-PIERI.
  10. Armando Barrientos & Jocelyn DeJong, 2006. "Reducing Child Poverty with Cash Transfers: A Sure Thing?," Development Policy Review, Overseas Development Institute, vol. 24(5), pages 537-552, 09.

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