Advanced Search
MyIDEAS: Login to save this paper or follow this series

The Impact of the Bolsa Escola/Familia Conditional Cash Transfer Program on Enrollment, Drop Out Rates and Grade Promotion in Brazil

Contents:

Author Info

  • Paul Glewwe
  • Ana Lucia Kassouf

Abstract

This paper examines the impact of Brazil's Bolsa Escola (later renamed Bolsa Familia) program on children's progress in school in Brazil. The Bolsa program, which started in the 1990s and expanded rapidly in 2001 and 2002, provides monthly cash payments to poor households if their children (between the ages of 6 and 15) are enrolled in school. Using eight years of school census data (from 1998 to 2005), our estimation method compares changes in enrollment and in dropout and grade advancement rates across schools that adopted the Bolsa program at different times. We estimate that, after accounting for cumulative effects, the Bolsa program has increased enrollment in Brazil by about 5.5 percent in grades 1-4 and by about 6.5 percent in grades 5-8. We also estimate that the program has lowered dropout rates by about 0.5 percentage points and raised grade promotion rates by about 0.9 percentage points for children in grades 1-4, and has reduced dropout rates by about 0.4 percentage points and increased grade promotion rates by about 0.3 percentage points for children in grades 5-8. Only about one third of Brazil’s children participate in the Bolsa program, so the assumption that these results are mainly due to the impact of the program on participants, with no effect on non-participants, implies that the impact of participating in the Bolsa program is about three times higher than these estimates. While these impacts cast a favorable light on the program, simple calculations based on the enrollment impacts suggest that the likely benefits in terms of increased wages may not exceed the costs of the program.

Download Info

If you experience problems downloading a file, check if you have the proper application to view it first. In case of further problems read the IDEAS help page. Note that these files are not on the IDEAS site. Please be patient as the files may be large.
File URL: ftp://cpq.fearp.usp.br:2300/textos_discussao/eco/wpe08_16.pdf
Our checks indicate that this address may not be valid because: 500 Failed to connect to FTP server cpq.fearp.usp.br: Net::FTP: connect: 10060. If this is indeed the case, please notify (Bruno Vizona Liberato)
File Function: First version, 2008
Download Restriction: no

Bibliographic Info

Paper provided by Universidade de São Paulo, Faculdade de Economia, Administração e Contabilidade de Ribeirão Preto in its series Working Papers with number 08_16.

as in new window
Length:
Date of creation: Sep 2008
Date of revision:
Handle: RePEc:fea:wpaper:08_16

Contact details of provider:
Postal: Avenida dos Bandeirantes, 3900 Ribeirão Preto - SP
Phone: (016) 633-5617
Fax: (016) 633-6133
Web page: http://www.cpq.fearp.usp.br/
More information through EDIRC

Related research

Keywords:

Other versions of this item:

Find related papers by JEL classification:

References

References listed on IDEAS
Please report citation or reference errors to , or , if you are the registered author of the cited work, log in to your RePEc Author Service profile, click on "citations" and make appropriate adjustments.:
as in new window
  1. N. Gregory Mankiw & David Romer & David N. Weil, 1990. "A Contribution to the Empirics of Economic Growth," NBER Working Papers 3541, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  2. FranÁois Bourguignon & Francisco H. G. Ferreira & Phillippe G. Leite, 2003. "Conditional Cash Transfers, Schooling, and Child Labor: Micro-Simulating Brazil's Bolsa Escola Program," World Bank Economic Review, World Bank Group, World Bank Group, vol. 17(2), pages 229-254, December.
  3. Alan Krueger & Mikael Lindahl, 2000. "Education for Growth: Why and For Whom?," Working Papers, Princeton University, Department of Economics, Industrial Relations Section. 808, Princeton University, Department of Economics, Industrial Relations Section..
  4. Barro, Robert J, 1991. "Economic Growth in a Cross Section of Countries," The Quarterly Journal of Economics, MIT Press, MIT Press, vol. 106(2), pages 407-43, May.
  5. Andrea Rodrigues Ferro & Ana Lucia Kassouf & Deborah Levison, 2011. "The Impact Ofconditional Cash Transfer Programs On Household Work Decisions In Brazil," Anais do XXXVII Encontro Nacional de Economia [Proceedings of the 37th Brazilian Economics Meeting], ANPEC - Associação Nacional dos Centros de Pósgraduação em Economia [Brazilian Association of 208, ANPEC - Associação Nacional dos Centros de Pósgraduação em Economia [Brazilian Association of Graduate Programs in Economics].
  6. Eric Hanushek & Ludger Woessmann, 2008. "The Role of Cognitive Skills in Economic Development," Discussion Papers, Stanford Institute for Economic Policy Research 07-034, Stanford Institute for Economic Policy Research.
  7. Parker, Susan W. & Rubalcava, Luis & Teruel, Graciela, 2008. "Evaluating Conditional Schooling and Health Programs," Handbook of Development Economics, Elsevier, Elsevier.
  8. Khandker, Shahidur & Pitt, Mark & Fuwa, Nobuhiko, 2003. "Subsidy to Promote Girls' Secondary Education: The Female Stipend Program in Bangladesh," MPRA Paper 23688, University Library of Munich, Germany.
  9. Paul Schultz, T., 2004. "School subsidies for the poor: evaluating the Mexican Progresa poverty program," Journal of Development Economics, Elsevier, Elsevier, vol. 74(1), pages 199-250, June.
  10. Norbert Schady & Maria Caridad Araujo, 2008. "Cash Transfers, Conditions, and School enrollment in Ecuador," JOURNAL OF LACEA ECONOMIA, LACEA - LATIN AMERICAN AND CARIBBEAN ECONOMIC ASSOCIATION.
  11. Xavier Sala-I-Martin & Gernot Doppelhofer & Ronald I. Miller, 2004. "Determinants of Long-Term Growth: A Bayesian Averaging of Classical Estimates (BACE) Approach," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, American Economic Association, vol. 94(4), pages 813-835, September.
  12. Emmanuel Skoufias & Susan Wendy Parker, 2001. "Conditional Cash Transfers and Their Impact on Child Work and Schooling: Evidence from the PROGRESA Program in Mexico," JOURNAL OF LACEA ECONOMIA, LACEA - LATIN AMERICAN AND CARIBBEAN ECONOMIC ASSOCIATION.
  13. Dubois, Pierre & de Janvry, Alain & Sadoulet, Elisabeth, 2003. "Effects on School Enrollment and Performance of a Conditional Transfers Program in Mexico," Department of Agricultural & Resource Economics, UC Berkeley, Working Paper Series, Department of Agricultural & Resource Economics, UC Berkeley qt3z1714nj, Department of Agricultural & Resource Economics, UC Berkeley.
  14. Eliana Cardoso & Andre Portela Souza, 2004. "The Impact of Cash Transfers on Child Labor and School Attendance in Brazil," Vanderbilt University Department of Economics Working Papers 0407, Vanderbilt University Department of Economics.
  15. Fabio Veras Soares & Rafael Perez Ribas & Rafael Guerreiro Osório, 2007. "Evaluating the Impact of Brazil?s Bolsa Família: Cash Transfer Programmes in Comparative Perspective," Publications, International Policy Centre for Inclusive Growth 1, International Policy Centre for Inclusive Growth.
  16. Schady, Norbert & Araujo, Maria Caridad, 2006. "Cash transfers, conditions, school enrollment, and child work : evidence from a randomized experiment in Ecuador," Policy Research Working Paper Series 3930, The World Bank.
  17. Ariel Fiszbein & Norbert Schady & Francisco H. G. Ferreira & Margaret Grosh & Niall Keleher & Pedro Olinto & Emmanuel Skoufias, 2009. "Conditional Cash Transfers : Reducing Present and Future Poverty," World Bank Publications, The World Bank, number 2597, August.
  18. World Bank, 2001. "Brazil : Assessment of the Bolsa Escola Programs," World Bank Other Operational Studies 15705, The World Bank.
Full references (including those not matched with items on IDEAS)

Citations

Citations are extracted by the CitEc Project, subscribe to its RSS feed for this item.
as in new window

Cited by:
  1. Kate Ambler & Diego Aycinena & Dean Yang, 2014. "Channeling Remittances to Education: A Field Experiment Among Migrants from El Salvador," NBER Working Papers 20262, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  2. Kirdar, Murat G. & Dayioglu, Meltem & Koc, Ismet, 2012. "Does longer compulsory education equalize educational attainment by gender, ethnicity, and socioeconomic background?," MPRA Paper 39995, University Library of Munich, Germany.
  3. Chitolina, Lia & Foguel, Miguel Nathan & Menezes-Filho, Naercio, 2013. "The impact of the expansion of the Bolsa Familia Program on the time allocation of youths and their parents," Insper Working Papers, Insper Working Paper, Insper Instituto de Ensino e Pesquisa wpe_326, Insper Working Paper, Insper Instituto de Ensino e Pesquisa.
  4. Cruz, Marcio & Ziegelhofer, Zacharias, 2014. "Beyond the income effect : impacts of conditional cash transfer programs on private investments in human capital," Policy Research Working Paper Series 6867, The World Bank.

Lists

This item is not listed on Wikipedia, on a reading list or among the top items on IDEAS.

Statistics

Access and download statistics

Corrections

When requesting a correction, please mention this item's handle: RePEc:fea:wpaper:08_16. See general information about how to correct material in RePEc.

For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: (Bruno Vizona Liberato).

If you have authored this item and are not yet registered with RePEc, we encourage you to do it here. This allows to link your profile to this item. It also allows you to accept potential citations to this item that we are uncertain about.

If references are entirely missing, you can add them using this form.

If the full references list an item that is present in RePEc, but the system did not link to it, you can help with this form.

If you know of missing items citing this one, you can help us creating those links by adding the relevant references in the same way as above, for each refering item. If you are a registered author of this item, you may also want to check the "citations" tab in your profile, as there may be some citations waiting for confirmation.

Please note that corrections may take a couple of weeks to filter through the various RePEc services.