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Parental Altruism and Inter Vivos Transfers: Theory and Evidence

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  • Joseph G. Altonji
  • Fumio Hayashi
  • Laurence Kotlikoff

Abstract

This paper uses PSID data on the extended family to test whether inter vivos transfers from parents to children are motivated by altruism. Specifically, the paper tests whether an increase by one dollar in the income of parents actively making transfers to a child coupled with a one dollar reduction in that child's income results in the parents increasing their transfer to the child by one dollar. This restriction on parental and child transfer-income derivatives is derived for the standard altruism model augmented to include uncertain and liquidity constraints. These additional elements pin down the timing of inter vivos transfers. The paper's method of estimating income-transfer derivatives takes into account unobserved heterogeneity across families in the degree of altruism. The findings strongly reject the altruism hypothesis. Redistributing one dollar from a recipient child to donor parents leads to less than a 13 cent increase in the parents' transfer to the child -- far less than the one dollar increase implied by altruism.

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Bibliographic Info

Paper provided by National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc in its series NBER Working Papers with number 5378.

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Date of creation: Dec 1995
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Publication status: published as Altonji, Joseph G., Fumio Hayashi and Laurence J. Kotlikoff. "Parental Altruism And Inter Vivos Transfers: Theory And Evidence," Journal of Political Economy, 1997, v105(6,Dec), 1121-1166.
Handle: RePEc:nbr:nberwo:5378

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  1. Altonji, Joseph G & Hayashi, Fumio & Kotlikoff, Laurence J, 1992. "Is the Extended Family Altruistically Linked? Direct Tests Using Micro Data," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, American Economic Association, vol. 82(5), pages 1177-98, December.
  2. Shleifer, Andrei & Summers, Lawrence H. & Bernheim, B. Douglas, 1986. "The Strategic Bequest Motive," Scholarly Articles 3721794, Harvard University Department of Economics.
  3. Kotlikoff, Laurence J & Spivak, Avia, 1981. "The Family as an Incomplete Annuities Market," Journal of Political Economy, University of Chicago Press, University of Chicago Press, vol. 89(2), pages 372-91, April.
  4. Ted Bergstrom, 1995. "A Survey of Theories of the Family," Papers, University of Michigan, Department of Economics _027, University of Michigan, Department of Economics.
  5. Cox, Donald & Rank, Mark R, 1992. "Inter-vivos Transfers and Intergenerational Exchange," The Review of Economics and Statistics, MIT Press, vol. 74(2), pages 305-14, May.
  6. Menchik, Paul L, 1980. "Primogeniture, Equal Sharing, and the U. S. Distribution of Wealth," The Quarterly Journal of Economics, MIT Press, MIT Press, vol. 94(2), pages 299-316, March.
  7. Gary S. Becker, 1974. "A Theory of Social Interactions," NBER Working Papers 0042, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  8. Altig, David & Davis, Steven J, 1992. "The Timing of Intergenerational Transfers, Tax Policy, and Aggregate Savings," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, American Economic Association, vol. 82(5), pages 1199-220, December.
  9. Blundell, Richard & Meghir, Costas, 1987. "Bivariate alternatives to the Tobit model," Journal of Econometrics, Elsevier, Elsevier, vol. 34(1-2), pages 179-200.
  10. Fumio Hayashi, 1995. "Is the Japanese Extended Family Altruistically Linked? A Test based on Engel Curves," NBER Working Papers 5033, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  11. W. G. Gale & J. K. Scholz, . "Intergenerational transfers and the accumulation of wealth," Institute for Research on Poverty Discussion Papers, University of Wisconsin Institute for Research on Poverty 1019-93, University of Wisconsin Institute for Research on Poverty.
  12. Barro, Robert J., 1974. "Are Government Bonds Net Wealth?," Scholarly Articles 3451399, Harvard University Department of Economics.
  13. Yannis M. Ioannides & Kambon Kan, 1999. "The Nature of Two-Directional Intergenerational Transfers of Money and Time: An Empirical Analysis," Discussion Papers Series, Department of Economics, Tufts University, Department of Economics, Tufts University 9917, Department of Economics, Tufts University.
  14. Cox, Donald, 1987. "Motives for Private Income Transfers," Journal of Political Economy, University of Chicago Press, University of Chicago Press, vol. 95(3), pages 508-46, June.
  15. Blinder, Alan S, 1976. "Intergenerational Transfers and Life Cycle Consumption," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, American Economic Association, vol. 66(2), pages 87-93, May.
  16. Pollak, Robert A, 1985. "A Transaction Cost Approach to Families and Households," Journal of Economic Literature, American Economic Association, American Economic Association, vol. 23(2), pages 581-608, June.
  17. Laurence J. Kotlikoff & Assaf Razin & Robert W. Rosenthal, 1988. "A Strategic Altruism Model In Which Ricardian Equivalence Does Not Hold," NBER Working Papers 2699, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  18. Sebastian Edwards & Miguel Savastano, 1988. "Latin America's Intraregional Trade: Evolution and Future Prospects," NBER Working Papers 2738, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  19. Cox, Donald, 1990. "Intergenerational Transfers and Liquidity Constraints," The Quarterly Journal of Economics, MIT Press, MIT Press, vol. 105(1), pages 187-217, February.
  20. Drazen, Allan, 1978. "Government Debt, Human Capital, and Bequests in a Life-Cycle Model," Journal of Political Economy, University of Chicago Press, University of Chicago Press, vol. 86(3), pages 505-16, June.
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