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Non-Walrasian Unemployment Fluctuations

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  • Jordi Gali

Abstract

We modify the standard real business cycle model by assuming that wages are set by a monopoly union at the firm level. In the context of such a model, we introduce a measure of unemployment and analyze its equilibrium behavior. We show that a calibrated version of the model is capable of generating both a procyclical labor supply and a countercyclical unemployment rate, in a way qualitatively consistent with the evidence. The model stresses the role of countercyclical markups in the goods market as a key mechanism underlying the countercyclical behavior of unemployment.

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Bibliographic Info

Paper provided by National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc in its series NBER Working Papers with number 5337.

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Date of creation: Nov 1995
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Handle: RePEc:nbr:nberwo:5337

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  1. Danthine, Jean-Pierre & Donaldson, John B., 1990. "Efficiency wages and the business cycle puzzle," European Economic Review, Elsevier, vol. 34(7), pages 1275-1301, November.
  2. Rotemberg, Julio J & Woodford, Michael, 1992. "Oligopolistic Pricing and the Effects of Aggregate Demand on Economic Activity," Journal of Political Economy, University of Chicago Press, vol. 100(6), pages 1153-1207, December.
  3. Hansen, Gary D., 1985. "Indivisible labor and the business cycle," Journal of Monetary Economics, Elsevier, vol. 16(3), pages 309-327, November.
  4. Gali Jordi, 1994. "Monopolistic Competition, Business Cycles, and the Composition of Aggregate Demand," Journal of Economic Theory, Elsevier, vol. 63(1), pages 73-96, June.
  5. Bean, Charles R, 1994. "European Unemployment: A Survey," Journal of Economic Literature, American Economic Association, vol. 32(2), pages 573-619, June.
  6. Greenwood, Jeremy & Huffman, Gregory W., 1991. "Tax analysis in a real-business-cycle model : On measuring Harberger triangles and Okun gaps," Journal of Monetary Economics, Elsevier, vol. 27(2), pages 167-190, April.
  7. Anton Braun, R., 1994. "Tax disturbances and real economic activity in the postwar United States," Journal of Monetary Economics, Elsevier, vol. 33(3), pages 441-462, June.
  8. Hart, Oliver, 1982. "A Model of Imperfect Competition with Keynesian Features," The Quarterly Journal of Economics, MIT Press, vol. 97(1), pages 109-38, February.
  9. Satyajit Chatterjee & Russell Cooper, 1993. "Entry and Exit, Product Variety and the Business Cycle," NBER Working Papers 4562, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  10. Christiano, Lawrence J & Eichenbaum, Martin, 1992. "Current Real-Business-Cycle Theories and Aggregate Labor-Market Fluctuations," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 82(3), pages 430-50, June.
  11. Greenwood, Jeremy & MacDonald, Glenn M & Zhang, Guang-Jia, 1996. "The Cyclical Behavior of Job Creation and Job Destruction: A Sectoral Model," Economic Theory, Springer, vol. 7(1), pages 95-112, January.
  12. Jovanovic, Boyan, 1987. "Work, Rest, and Search: Unemployment, Turnover, and the Cycle," Journal of Labor Economics, University of Chicago Press, vol. 5(2), pages 131-48, April.
  13. Campbell, John, 1994. "Inspecting the Mechanism: An Analytical Approach to the Stochastic Growth Model," Scholarly Articles 3196342, Harvard University Department of Economics.
  14. Danthine, Jean Pierre & Donaldson, John B., 1992. "Risk sharing in the business cycle," European Economic Review, Elsevier, vol. 36(2-3), pages 468-475, April.
  15. Richard Rogerson, 2010. "Indivisible Labor, Lotteries and Equilibrium," Levine's Working Paper Archive 250, David K. Levine.
  16. Cooley, T.F. & Hansen, G.D., 1988. "The Inflation Tax In A Real Business Cycle Model," RCER Working Papers 155, University of Rochester - Center for Economic Research (RCER).
  17. Michael Woodford, 1990. "Self-Fulfilling Expectations and Fluctuations in Aggregate Demand," NBER Working Papers 3361, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  18. Lucas, Robert Jr. & Prescott, Edward C., 1974. "Equilibrium search and unemployment," Journal of Economic Theory, Elsevier, vol. 7(2), pages 188-209, February.
  19. McDonald, Ian M & Solow, Robert M, 1981. "Wage Bargaining and Employment," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 71(5), pages 896-908, December.
  20. Marianne Baxter & Robert G. King, 1991. "Productive externalities and business cycles," Discussion Paper / Institute for Empirical Macroeconomics 53, Federal Reserve Bank of Minneapolis.
  21. Shapiro, Carl & Stiglitz, Joseph E, 1984. "Equilibrium Unemployment as a Worker Discipline Device," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 74(3), pages 433-44, June.
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Citations

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Cited by:
  1. Marco Maffezzoli, 2001. "Non-Walrasian Labor Markets and Real Business Cycles," Review of Economic Dynamics, Elsevier for the Society for Economic Dynamics, vol. 4(4), pages 860-892, October.
  2. Cook, David, 2001. "Time to enter and business cycles," Journal of Economic Dynamics and Control, Elsevier, vol. 25(8), pages 1241-1261, August.
  3. Erkki Koskela & Leopold von Thadden, 2008. "Optimal Factor Taxation under Wage Bargaining: A Dynamic Perspective," German Economic Review, Verein für Socialpolitik, vol. 9, pages 135-159, 05.
  4. Henri L.F. de Groot & Anton B.T.M. van Schaik, 2002. "Unemployment, Growth and the Organisation of Work," Tinbergen Institute Discussion Papers 02-017/3, Tinbergen Institute.
  5. Weder, Mark, 2000. "Animal spirits, technology shocks and the business cycle," Journal of Economic Dynamics and Control, Elsevier, vol. 24(2), pages 273-295, February.
  6. Koskela, Erkki & von Thadden, Leopold, 2002. "Optimal factor taxation under wage bargaining: a dynamic perspective," Discussion Paper Series 1: Economic Studies 2002,31, Deutsche Bundesbank, Research Centre.
  7. Cook, David, 2002. "Market entry and international propagation of business cycles," Journal of International Economics, Elsevier, vol. 56(1), pages 155-175, January.
  8. Fabio Canova & Eva Ortega, 1996. "Testing calibrated general equilibrium models," Economics Working Papers 166, Department of Economics and Business, Universitat Pompeu Fabra.
  9. repec:dgr:uvatin:2002017 is not listed on IDEAS
  10. Ebell, Monique & Haefke, Christian, 2003. "Product Market Deregulation and Labor Market Outcomes," IZA Discussion Papers 957, Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA).
  11. Ebell, Monique & Haefke, Christian, 2006. "Product Market Regulation and Endogenous Union Formation," IZA Discussion Papers 2222, Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA).
  12. Erkki Koskela & Leopold von Thadden, 2003. "Optimal Factor Taxation under Wage Bargaining - A Dynamic Perspective," CESifo Working Paper Series 836, CESifo Group Munich.
  13. Schaik, A.B.T.M. van & Groot, H.L.F. de, 2000. "Unemployment, growth and efficiency wages," Open Access publications from Tilburg University urn:nbn:nl:ui:12-83963, Tilburg University.
  14. Huw David Dixon, 2000. "Modelling Market Power in Labour and Product Markets in a Dynamic Economy," Ekonomia, Cyprus Economic Society and University of Cyprus, vol. 4(2), pages 104-121, Winter.
  15. Meckl, Jurgen, 2004. "Accumulation of technological knowledge, wage differentials, and unemployment," Journal of Macroeconomics, Elsevier, vol. 26(1), pages 65-82, March.
  16. John Kennan, 2001. "Uniqueness of Positive Fixed Points for Increasing Concave Functions on Rn: An Elementary Result," Review of Economic Dynamics, Elsevier for the Society for Economic Dynamics, vol. 4(4), pages 893-899, October.
  17. Christian Haefke & Monique Ebell, 2004. "The Missing Link: Product Market Regulation, Collective Bargaining and the European Unemployment Puzzle," 2004 Meeting Papers 759, Society for Economic Dynamics.

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