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The Performance of Reverse Leveraged Buyouts

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  • Jerry Cao
  • Josh Lerner

Abstract

Reverse leveraged buyouts (RLBOs) have received increased public scrutiny but attracted little systematic study. We collect a comprehensive sample of 496 RLBOs between 1980 and 2002 and examine three- and five-year stock performance of these offerings. RLBOs appear to consistently outperform other IPOs and the stock market as a whole, with economically and statistically meaningful positive returns. There is no evidence of a deterioration of returns over time, despite the growth of the buyout market: RLBOs performed strongly in the late 1980s, the mid-1990s, and the 2000s. Large RLBOs that are backed by private equity firms with more capital under management perform better. We also find the so-called quick flips--when private equity firms sell off an investment within a year after acquisition--underperform.

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Bibliographic Info

Paper provided by National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc in its series NBER Working Papers with number 12626.

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Date of creation: Oct 2006
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Publication status: published as Cao, Jerry & Lerner, Josh, 2009. "The performance of reverse leveraged buyouts," Journal of Financial Economics, Elsevier, vol. 91(2), pages 139-157, February.
Handle: RePEc:nbr:nberwo:12626

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  1. Jay Ritter & Ivo Welch, 2002. "A Review of IPO Activity, Pricing and Allocations," Yale School of Management Working Papers ysm258, Yale School of Management, revised 01 Apr 2002.
  2. Bharat A. Jain & Omesh Kini, 2000. "Does the Presence of Venture Capitalists Improve the Survival Profile of IPO Firms?," Journal of Business Finance & Accounting, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 27(9&10), pages 1139-1183.
  3. Steven N. Kaplan & Jeremy C. Stein, 1993. "THE EVOLUTION OF BUYOUT PRICING AND FINANCIAL STRUCTURE (OR, WHAT WENT WRONG) IN THE 1980s," Journal of Applied Corporate Finance, Morgan Stanley, vol. 6(1), pages 72-88.
  4. Shehzad Mian & James Rosenfeld, 1993. "Takeover Activity and the Long-Run Performance of Reverse Leveraged Buyouts," Financial Management, Financial Management Association, vol. 22(4), Winter.
  5. Kaplan, Steve & Schoar, Antoinette, 2004. "Private Equity Performance: Returns, Persistence and Capital Flows," Working papers 4446-03, Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT), Sloan School of Management.
  6. Kaplan, Steven N & Stein, Jeremy C, 1993. "The Evolution of Buyout Pricing and Financial Structure in the 1980s," The Quarterly Journal of Economics, MIT Press, vol. 108(2), pages 313-57, May.
  7. Yasushi Hamao & Frank Packer & Jay R. Ritter, 1998. "Institutional affiliation and the role of venture capital: evidence from initial public offerings in Japan," Staff Reports 52, Federal Reserve Bank of New York.
  8. Richard B. Carter & Frederick H. Dark & Ajai K. Singh, 1998. "Underwriter Reputation, Initial Returns, and the Long-Run Performance of IPO Stocks," Journal of Finance, American Finance Association, vol. 53(1), pages 285-311, 02.
  9. Kaplan, Steven, 1989. "The effects of management buyouts on operating performance and value," Journal of Financial Economics, Elsevier, vol. 24(2), pages 217-254.
  10. Steven N. Kaplan, 1991. "The Staying Power of Leveraged Buyouts," NBER Working Papers 3653, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  11. Chou, De-Wai & Gombola, Michael & Liu, Feng-Ying, 2006. "Earnings Management and Stock Performance of Reverse Leveraged Buyouts," Journal of Financial and Quantitative Analysis, Cambridge University Press, vol. 41(02), pages 407-438, June.
  12. Barber, Brad M. & Lyon, John D., 1997. "Detecting long-run abnormal stock returns: The empirical power and specification of test statistics," Journal of Financial Economics, Elsevier, vol. 43(3), pages 341-372, March.
  13. Gompers, Paul & Lerner, Josh, 1999. "Conflict of Interest in the Issuance of Public Securities: Evidence from Venture Capital," Journal of Law and Economics, University of Chicago Press, vol. 42(1), pages 1-28, April.
  14. Degeorge, Francois & Zeckhauser, Richard, 1993. " The Reverse LBO Decision and Firm Performance: Theory and Evidence," Journal of Finance, American Finance Association, vol. 48(4), pages 1323-48, September.
  15. Holthausen, Robert W. & Larcker, David F., 1996. "The financial performance of reverse leveraged buyouts," Journal of Financial Economics, Elsevier, vol. 42(3), pages 293-332, November.
  16. Fama, Eugene F & French, Kenneth R, 1992. " The Cross-Section of Expected Stock Returns," Journal of Finance, American Finance Association, vol. 47(2), pages 427-65, June.
  17. Muscarella, Chris J & Vetsuypens, Michael R, 1990. " Efficiency and Organizational Structure: A Study of Reverse LBOs," Journal of Finance, American Finance Association, vol. 45(5), pages 1389-1413, December.
  18. Chevalier, Judith A, 1995. " Do LBO Supermarkets Charge More? An Empirical Analysis of the Effects of LBOs on Supermarket Pricing," Journal of Finance, American Finance Association, vol. 50(4), pages 1095-1112, September.
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Citations

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Cited by:
  1. Phillip Leslie & Paul Oyer, 2008. "Managerial Incentives and Value Creation: Evidence from Private Equity," NBER Working Papers 14331, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  2. Lopez-de-Silanes, Florencio & Phalippou, Ludovic & Gottschalg, Olivier, 2010. "Giants at the Gate: On the Cross-section of Private Equity Investment Returns," MPRA Paper 28487, University Library of Munich, Germany.
  3. Shai Bernstein & Josh Lerner & Morten Sørensen & Per Strömberg, 2010. "Private Equity and Industry Performance," NBER Working Papers 15632, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  4. Ayako Yasuda & Andrew Metrick, 2007. "The economics of private equity funds," Proceedings, Federal Reserve Bank of San Francisco, issue Oct.
  5. Cumming, Douglas & Helge Haß, Lars & Schweizer, Denis, 2013. "Private equity benchmarks and portfolio optimization," Journal of Banking & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 37(9), pages 3515-3528.
  6. Joost Driessen & Tse-Chun Lin & Ludovic Phalippou, 2008. "A New Method to Estimate Risk and Return of Non-Traded Assets from Cash Flows: The Case of Private Equity Funds," NBER Working Papers 14144, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  7. Dirk Engel & Joel Stiebale, 2014. "Private equity, investment and financial constraints: firm-level evidence for France and the United Kingdom," Small Business Economics, Springer, vol. 43(1), pages 197-212, June.
  8. Badertscher, Brad A. & Katz, Sharon P. & Rego, Sonja O., 2013. "The separation of ownership and control and corporate tax avoidance," Journal of Accounting and Economics, Elsevier, vol. 56(2), pages 228-250.
  9. Cumming, Douglas & Zambelli, Simona, 2013. "Private equity performance under extreme regulation," Journal of Banking & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 37(5), pages 1508-1523.
  10. Baran, Lindsay C. & King, Tao-Hsien Dolly, 2010. "Going private transactions, bondholder returns, and wealth transfer effects," Journal of Banking & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 34(8), pages 1856-1872, August.
  11. Chen, Sheng-Syan & Ho, Kim Wai & Huang, Chia-Wei & Wang, Yanzhi, 2013. "Buyback behavior of initial public offering firms," Journal of Banking & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 37(1), pages 32-42.
  12. Claudio Loderer & René Stulz & Urs Waelchli, 2013. "Limited Managerial Attention and Corporate Aging," NBER Working Papers 19428, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  13. Minardi, Andrea Maria Accioly Fonseca & Ferrari, Guilherme Lopes & AraújoTavares, Pedro Carvalho, 2013. "Performances of Brazilian IPOs backed by private equity," Journal of Business Research, Elsevier, vol. 66(3), pages 448-455.
  14. Lily Fang & Victoria Ivashina & Josh Lerner, 2013. "Combining Banking with Private Equity Investing," NBER Working Papers 19300, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  15. Sharon Katz, 2008. "Earnings Quality and Ownership Structure: The Role of Private Equity Sponsors," NBER Working Papers 14085, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  16. repec:dgr:uvatin:2011035 is not listed on IDEAS
  17. Bank for International Settlements, 2008. "Private equity and leveraged finance markets," CGFS Papers, Bank for International Settlements, number 30, July.
  18. Alpalhão, Rui & Alves, Paulo, 2013. "States as LBO Specialists: evidence from Portugal," MPRA Paper 51433, University Library of Munich, Germany, revised 2013.
  19. Cumming, Douglas & Zambelli, Simona, 2010. "Illegal buyouts," Journal of Banking & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 34(2), pages 441-456, February.

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