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Envoi de fonds, inégalité et pauvreté au Burkina Faso

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Abstract

Based on the household surveys, carried out in1994_95, the present study underlines the impact of remittances on the inequality and poverty in Burkina Faso, a country again largely dependent of the emigration to neighbor countries. Firstly, whereas transfers play an important role to raise the standard of living of households, the redistribution is especially the expression of the mobilisation of a social capital. Remittances - of which about half come from Côte d'Ivoire - represent the three quarters of the whole of the transfers and relate to about a third of the households burkinabè, especially poorest - profiting more from the international transfers - and those of the rural sector managed by a woman. Secondly, the decomposition of the sources of incomes shows that, as a whole, the transfers - considered as exogenous - tend to have an equalizing effect on the household income distribution in Burkina Faso. In this respect, the simulation indicates that the nonremittance incomes raise the inequality of the total income, whereas the remittances have an opposite effect. Moreover, if the variation of wellbeing results, initially, of the changes related to the nonremittance incomes, on the one hand, the increase of remittances has a substantial impact on the wellbeing of the rural households and, on the other hand, in the cities, the incidence of the institutional redistribution on the wellbeing is quasi_identical to the importance of the remittances. Thirdly, by underlining the fruitfulness of an approach viewing the remittances as a potential substitute of home earnings, the econometric analysis shows that the impact of the remittances is to reduce the headcount poverty of the rural households of 7,2 points of percentage, the mobilization of the social capital especially affecting the poverty and the inequality of the most vulnerable - subsistence farmers and inactive people, households managed by a woman. In the towns, the ratio of poverty of the households is reduced of 3,2 points of percentage, consecutively with the remittances, in particular for the socio_economic groups traditionally most exposed - unemployed, self_employed workers. The analysis ofstochastic dominance confirms these results. In fact, the positive impact of remittances on the inequality and poverty in Burkina Faso underlines the extent of the transfers coming from Côte d'Ivoire, and, consequently, the double dependence, in the short run, of the standard of living of the populations of Burkina Faso with regard to the international transmission of the neighbor countries conjuncture, and, later on, of the capacity of accumulation of the physical and human capital with respect to external resources. (Full text in French)

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Paper provided by Groupe d'Economie du Développement de l'Université Montesquieu Bordeaux IV in its series Documents de travail with number 40.

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Length: 30 pages
Date of creation: Aug 1999
Date of revision:
Handle: RePEc:mon:ceddtr:40

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Cited by:
  1. Mesplé-Somps, Sandrine & Gubert, Flore & Chauvet, Lisa, 2010. "Are Remittances More Effective Than Aid to Reduce Child Mortality? An Empirical Assessment Using Inter and Intra-Country Data," Economics Papers from University Paris Dauphine 123456789/4301, Paris Dauphine University.
  2. de Janvry, Alain & Sadoulet, Elisabeth & Zhu, Nong, 2005. "The Role of Non-Farm Incomes in Reducing Rural Poverty and Inequality in China," Department of Agricultural & Resource Economics, UC Berkeley, Working Paper Series qt7ts2z766, Department of Agricultural & Resource Economics, UC Berkeley.
  3. Robert E.B. Lucas, 2007. "Migration and rural development," The Electronic Journal of Agricultural and Development Economics, Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, vol. 4(1), pages 99-122.
  4. Yacouba Diallo, 2001. "Les déterminants du travail des enfants en Côte d'Ivoire," Documents de travail 55, Groupe d'Economie du Développement de l'Université Montesquieu Bordeaux IV.
  5. Jean-Pierre Lachaud, 2005. "Crise ivoirienne, envois de fonds et pauvreté au Burkina Faso," Revue Tiers Monde, Programme National Persée, vol. 46(183), pages 651-673.
  6. Nkamleu, Guy Blaise & Fox, Louise, 2006. "Taking Stock of Research on Regional Migration in Sub-Saharan Africa," MPRA Paper 15112, University Library of Munich, Germany.
  7. Chauvet, Lisa & Gubert, Flore & Mesplé-Somps, Sandrine, 2008. "Are Remittances More Effective Than Aid To Improve Child Health? An Empirical Assessment using Inter and Intra-Country Data," Economics Papers from University Paris Dauphine 123456789/10707, Paris Dauphine University.
  8. Jean-Marc Montaud, 2002. "Ajustement structurel et inégalités des revenus en Afrique : une analyse de décomposition appliquée au Burkina-faso," Documents de travail 75, Groupe d'Economie du Développement de l'Université Montesquieu Bordeaux IV.
  9. Zhu, Nong & Luo, Xubei, 2008. "The impact of remittances on rural poverty and inequality in China," Policy Research Working Paper Series 4637, The World Bank.
  10. Wouterse, F. S., 2008. "Migration, poverty, and inequality: Evidence from Burkina Faso," IFPRI discussion papers 786, International Food Policy Research Institute (IFPRI).
  11. Laetitia Duval & François-Charles Wolff, 2009. "L'effet des transferts migratoires sur la déforestation dans les pays en développement," Working Papers hal-00421222, HAL.
  12. Flore Gubert & Thomas Lassourd & Sandrine Mesplé-Somps, 2010. "Do remittances affect poverty and inequality? Evidence from Mali," Working Papers DT/2010/08, DIAL (Développement, Institutions et Mondialisation).
  13. Lisa Chauvet & Flore Gubert & Sandrine Mesplé-Somps, 2009. "Are Remittances More Effective Than Aid To Reduce Child Mortality ? An Empirical Assessment using Inter and Intra-Country Data," Working Papers halshs-00966367, HAL.
  14. Zhu, Nong & Luo, Xubei, 2006. "Nonfarm activity and rural income inequality : a case study of two provinces in China," Policy Research Working Paper Series 3811, The World Bank.
  15. Taruvinga, Amon & Mushunje, Abbyssinia, 2012. "Buffer zone income dynamics for the sub-district producer community: Implications for rural off-farm income, income inequality and the development of household agriculture," 2012 Conference, August 18-24, 2012, Foz do Iguacu, Brazil 126377, International Association of Agricultural Economists.
  16. Nong Zhu & Xubei Luo, 2014. "The Impact of migration on rural poverty and inequality: a case study in China," CIRANO Working Papers 2014s-08, CIRANO.

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