The Vanishing Farms? The Impact of International Migration on Albanian Family Farming
AbstractTaking advantage of new data on a high migration country, the main goal of this paper is to investigate the impact of migration on resource allocation to, and income from, agricultural production of farm households. The main channels through which these impacts can be expected to materialize are via the allocation of labor and capital resources of the households, as modified by the loss of "resident" family workforce to migration and the gain in access to working capital or credit made possible by the inflow of remittances or simply by an improved economic and financial status of the household associated with migration. Our results suggest that migration of one or more household members is being used by rural households in Albania as part of a strategy to move out of agriculture. The impact of family labor is unequivocal: members of households with migrants abroad work significantly fewer hours in agricultural production, both in total and on a per capita basis. Also, women in migrant households work proportionately more than men, when compared with their counterparts in non-migrant households. Contrary to expectation, and despite sizable remittances, migrant households do not appear to invest more in productivity-enhancing and time-saving farm technologies in crop production such as chemical fertilizers and farm equipment. Despite the reduced labor effort, however, agriculture income does not seem to decline as a result of migration, and total income (as expected) increases significantly. Although a relative decline of agriculture is an inevitable part of the development process, a stagnating agriculture ought to be a matter of concern to policy makers, given the number of Albanian households still relying on farming as main source of income, and the pervasive lack of non-farm income opportunities for rural households. Also, the lack of productivity growth and investment in agriculture that the evidence presented in this paper seems to be hinting to, can be interpreted as signals of a foregone opportunity particularly in areas of the country with higher farming potential.
Download InfoIf you experience problems downloading a file, check if you have the proper application to view it first. In case of further problems read the IDEAS help page. Note that these files are not on the IDEAS site. Please be patient as the files may be large.
Bibliographic InfoPaper provided by European Association of Agricultural Economists in its series 103rd Seminar, April 23-25, 2007, Barcelona, Spain with number 9406.
Date of creation: 2007
Date of revision:
Other versions of this item:
- Juna Miluka & Gero Carletto & Benjamin Davis & Alberto Zezza, 2010. "The Vanishing Farms? The Impact of International Migration on Albanian Family Farming," Journal of Development Studies, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 46(1), pages 140-161.
- Miluka, Juna & Carletto, Calogero & Davis, Benjamin & Zezza, Alberto, 2007. "The vanishing farms ? the impact of international migration on Albanian family farming," Policy Research Working Paper Series 4367, The World Bank.
Please report citation or reference errors to , or , if you are the registered author of the cited work, log in to your RePEc Author Service profile, click on "citations" and make appropriate adjustments.:
- Jean-Paul Azam & Flore Gubert, 2005.
"Those in Kayes. The Impact of Remittances on Their Recipients in Africa,"
Presses de Sciences-Po, vol. 56(6), pages 1331-1358.
- Azam, Jean-Paul & Gubert, Flore, 2005. "Those in Kayes. The impact of remittances on the recipients in Africa," Economics Papers from University Paris Dauphine 123456789/4571, Paris Dauphine University.
- Jean-Paul Azam & Flore Gubert, 2002. "Those in Kayes. The impact of remittances on their recipients in Africa," Working Papers DT/2002/11, DIAL (Développement, Institutions et Mondialisation).
- Azam, Jean-Paul & Gubert, Flore, 2004. "Those in Kayes: The Impact of Remittances on their Recipients in Africa," IDEI Working Papers 308, Institut d'Économie Industrielle (IDEI), Toulouse.
- Gero Carletto & Benjamin Davis & Marco Stampini & Stefano Trento & Alberto Zezza, 2004. "Internal Mobility and International Migration in Albania," Working Papers 04-13, Agricultural and Development Economics Division of the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO - ESA).
- Stark, Oded & Taylor, J Edward & Yitzhaki, Shlomo, 1986. "Remittances and Inequality," Economic Journal, Royal Economic Society, vol. 96(383), pages 722-40, September.
- Catalina Amuedo-Dorantes & Susan Pozo, 2006. "Remittance Receipt and Business Ownership in the Dominican Republic," The World Economy, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 29(7), pages 939-956, 07.
- Azzarri, Carlo & Carletto, Calogero & Davis, Benjamin & Zezza, Alberto, 2006.
"Choosing to Migrate or Migrating to Choose: Migration and Labor Choice in Albania,"
2006 Annual Meeting, August 12-18, 2006, Queensland, Australia
25538, International Association of Agricultural Economists.
- Carlo Azzarri & Gero Carletto & Benjamin Davis & Alberto Zezza, 2006. "Choosing to Migrate or Migrating to Choose: Migration and Labour Choice in Albania," Working Papers 06-06, Agricultural and Development Economics Division of the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO - ESA).
- Lucas, Robert E B, 1987. "Emigration to South Africa's Mines," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 77(3), pages 313-30, June.
- Peter Kennedy, 2003. "A Guide to Econometrics, 5th Edition," MIT Press Books, The MIT Press, edition 5, volume 1, number 026261183x, December.
- Taylor, J Edward & Rozelle, Scott & de Brauw, Alan, 2003. "Migration and Incomes in Source Communities: A New Economics of Migration Perspective from China," Economic Development and Cultural Change, University of Chicago Press, vol. 52(1), pages 75-101, October.
- Taylor, J. Edward, 1992. "Remittances and inequality reconsidered: Direct, indirect, and intertemporal effects," Journal of Policy Modeling, Elsevier, vol. 14(2), pages 187-208, April.
- Gubert, Flore, 2002.
"Do Migrants Insure Those who Stay Behind? Evidence from the Kayes Area (Western Mali),"
Economics Papers from University Paris Dauphine
123456789/10842, Paris Dauphine University.
- Flore Gubert, 2002. "Do Migrants Insure Those who Stay Behind? Evidence from the Kayes Area (Western Mali)," Oxford Development Studies, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 30(3), pages 267-287.
- Nancy McCarthy & Gero Carletto & Benjamin Davis & Irini Maltsoglou, 2006. "Assessing the Impact of Massive Out-Migration on Agriculture," Working Papers 06-14, Agricultural and Development Economics Division of the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO - ESA).
- Cungu, Azeta & Swinnen, Johan F M, 1999. "Albania's Radical Agrarian Reform," Economic Development and Cultural Change, University of Chicago Press, vol. 47(3), pages 605-19, April.
- de Brauw, Alan & Rozelle, Scott, 2008. "Migration and household investment in rural China," China Economic Review, Elsevier, vol. 19(2), pages 320-335, June.
- Lucas, Robert E B & Stark, Oded, 1985. "Motivations to Remit: Evidence from Botswana," Journal of Political Economy, University of Chicago Press, vol. 93(5), pages 901-18, October.
- Ilahi, Nadeem & Jafarey, Saqib, 1999. "Guestworker migration, remittances and the extended family: evidence from Pakistan," Journal of Development Economics, Elsevier, vol. 58(2), pages 485-512, April.
- J. Edward Taylor & Scott Rozelle & Alan deBrauw, 1999. "Migration, Remittances, and Agricultural Productivity in China," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 89(2), pages 287-291, May.
- Stark, Oded & Bloom, David E, 1985. "The New Economics of Labor Migration," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 75(2), pages 173-78, May.
- Funkhouser, Edward, 1992. "Migration from Nicaragua: some recent evidence," World Development, Elsevier, vol. 20(8), pages 1209-1218, August.
- Deininger, Klaus & Savastano, Sara & Carletto, Calogero, 2012.
"Land Fragmentation, Cropland Abandonment, and Land Market Operation in Albania,"
Elsevier, vol. 40(10), pages 2108-2122.
- Deininger, Klaus & Savastano, Sara & Carletto, Calogero, 2012. "Land fragmentation, cropland abandonment, and land market operation in Albania," Policy Research Working Paper Series 6032, The World Bank.
- Karamba, Wendy R. & Quiñones, Esteban J. & Winters, Paul, 2011. "Migration and food consumption patterns in Ghana," Food Policy, Elsevier, vol. 36(1), pages 41-53, February.
- Hagen-Zanker, Jessica, 2010. "Modest expectations: Causes and effects of migration on migrant households in source countries," MPRA Paper 29507, University Library of Munich, Germany.
- Mendola, Mariapia & Carletto, Calogero, 2012. "Migration and gender differences in the home labour market: Evidence from Albania," Labour Economics, Elsevier, vol. 19(6), pages 870-880.
- Göbel, Kristin, 2012. "Remittances and Gender-Speci fic Employment Patterns in Peru - a longitudinal Analysis," Annual Conference 2012 (Goettingen): New Approaches and Challenges for the Labor Market of the 21st Century 65409, Verein für Socialpolitik / German Economic Association.
For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: (AgEcon Search).
If you have authored this item and are not yet registered with RePEc, we encourage you to do it here. This allows to link your profile to this item. It also allows you to accept potential citations to this item that we are uncertain about.
If references are entirely missing, you can add them using this form.
If the full references list an item that is present in RePEc, but the system did not link to it, you can help with this form.
If you know of missing items citing this one, you can help us creating those links by adding the relevant references in the same way as above, for each refering item. If you are a registered author of this item, you may also want to check the "citations" tab in your profile, as there may be some citations waiting for confirmation.
Please note that corrections may take a couple of weeks to filter through the various RePEc services.