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Une analyse théorique de l’interaction entre l’emploi public et les performances du marché du travail dans les pays en développement

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  • Yves Abessolo

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    (CEREG, Université de Yaoundé II)

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    Abstract

    Cet article analyse les interactions entre l’emploi public et les performances du marché du travail dans les pays en développement. Si dans les pays développés il est montré que l’emploi public évince l’emploi privé et accroît le chômage, notre contribution théorique suggère que l’emploi public a une influence importante sur les performances du marché du travail des pays étudiés à travers trois canaux. D’abord, à travers des externalités positives, l’emploi public accroît la productivité du secteur privé. Ensuite, compte tenu du degré de substitution entre les productions des secteurs public et privé d’une part, et du niveau des rentes d’autre part, l’emploi public n’évince pas l’emploi privé. Enfin, aucun élément théorique ne justifie l’idée selon laquelle l’emploi public accroît le chômage, nos résultats suggèrent même que l’emploi public diminue durablement le chômage. This paper explores the consequences of public employment on labour market performances in developing countries. If in developed countries evidence shows that public employment may not only crowd out private employment, but also increase overall unemployment, our theoretical considerations suggest that public employment significantly affects labour market performances through three channels. First, positive externalities of public employment increase private sector productivity. Secondly, with the level of substitutability of public and private outputs, and the size of the rents, there is no crowding out effects of public jobs on the private sector. In the latter case, our theoretical analysis suggests that public employment may reduce unemployment in developing countries. (Full text in french)

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    Bibliographic Info

    Paper provided by Groupe d'Economie du Développement de l'Université Montesquieu Bordeaux IV in its series Documents de travail with number 110.

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    Length: 8 pages
    Date of creation: Apr 2005
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    Handle: RePEc:mon:ceddtr:110

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    1. Holmlund, B., 1991. "Wage Setting in Private and Public Sectors in a Model with Endogenous Government Behavior," Papers 1991i, Uppsala - Working Paper Series.
    2. Demekas, Dimitri G & Kontolemis, Zenon G, 2000. " Government Employment and Wages and Labour Market Performance," Oxford Bulletin of Economics and Statistics, Department of Economics, University of Oxford, vol. 62(3), pages 391-415, July.
    3. Olivier Blanchard & Justin Wolfers, 1999. "The Role of Shocks and Institutions in the Rise of European Unemployment: The Aggregate Evidence," NBER Working Papers 7282, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
    4. Dani Rodrik, 1997. "What Drives Public Employment?," NBER Working Papers 6141, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
    5. Sherwin Rosen, 1995. "Public Employment, Taxes and the Welfare State in Sweden," NBER Working Papers 5003, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
    6. Yann Algan & Pierre Cahuc & André Zylberberg, 2002. "Public employment and labor market performances," Working Papers 250928, Institut National de la Recherche Agronomique, France.
    7. Albert Alesina & Stephan Danninger & Massimo Rostagno, 2001. "Redistribution Through Public Employment: The Case of Italy," IMF Staff Papers, Palgrave Macmillan, vol. 48(3), pages 2.
    8. Gregory, Robert G. & Borland, Jeff, 1999. "Recent developments in public sector labor markets," Handbook of Labor Economics, in: O. Ashenfelter & D. Card (ed.), Handbook of Labor Economics, edition 1, volume 3, chapter 53, pages 3573-3630 Elsevier.
    9. Jim Malley & Thomas Moutos, . "Government Employment and Unemployment: With One Hand Giveth, the Other Taketh," ICMM Discussion Papers 47, Department of Economics University of Strathclyde.
    10. Stephen Nickell, 1997. "Unemployment and Labor Market Rigidities: Europe versus North America," Journal of Economic Perspectives, American Economic Association, vol. 11(3), pages 55-74, Summer.
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