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FDI and FPI - Strategic Complements?

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  • Barbara Pfeffer

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    (University of Siegen)

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    Abstract

    We show in a dynamic investment setting whether firms choose FDI or international portfolio investment (FPI) in the presence of stochastic productivity taking into account differences in flexibility of both investments. Isolated FPI and FDI investments are compared to combined FPI and FDI investments. FDI requires higher investment specific costs than FPI. Thus, it is not possible to adjust FDI to environmental changes every period. In contrast, FPI bears lower fixed costs and can be adjusted immediately to short-term changes in the environment. Additionally, as a result of the investors control position FDI yields a higher return than FPI. Hence, there is a trade-off between flexibility and higher return for firms deciding between FDI and FPI. We explore whether as a consequence of higher investment specific fixed costs and lower flexibility in the case of FDI, small firms prefer FPI and larger firms invest in FDI. We show that a combined strategy dominates the isolated strategy always in times. Further, combined international investment comprises a higher incentive for firms to invest in r&d-investment and consequently firm productivity increase faster than with isolated international investment. Depending on the success-probability and the correlation between the various investment possibilities, even small firms (low productivity) invest in FDI.

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    File URL: http://www.uni-marburg.de/fb02/makro/forschung/magkspapers/12-2008_pfeffer.pdf
    File Function: First version, 2008
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    Bibliographic Info

    Paper provided by Philipps-Universität Marburg, Faculty of Business Administration and Economics, Department of Economics (Volkswirtschaftliche Abteilung) in its series MAGKS Papers on Economics with number 200812.

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    Length: 37 pages
    Date of creation: 2008
    Date of revision:
    Publication status: Forthcoming in
    Handle: RePEc:mar:magkse:200812

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    Related research

    Keywords: FDI; Portfolio Investment; Risk Diversification; endogeneous Productivity;

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    References

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    1. Elhanan Helpman & Marc J. Melitz & Stephen R. Yeaple, 2003. "Export versus FDI," Harvard Institute of Economic Research Working Papers 1998, Harvard - Institute of Economic Research.
    2. Assaf Razin & Ashoka Mody & Efraim Sadka, 2002. "The Role of Information in Driving FDI: Theory and Evidence," NBER Working Papers 9255, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
    3. Zilibotti, Fabrizio & Griffith, Rachel & Aghion, Philippe & Acemoglu, Daron, 2010. "Vertical Integration and Technology: Theory and Evidence," Scholarly Articles 4554219, Harvard University Department of Economics.
    4. Gene M. Grossman & Elhanan Helpman & Adam Szeidl, 2003. "Optimal Integration Strategies for the Multinational Firm," NBER Working Papers 10189, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
    5. Elhanan Helpman, 2006. "Trade, FDI, and the Organization of Firms," Journal of Economic Literature, American Economic Association, vol. 44(3), pages 589-630, September.
    6. Assaf Razin, 2002. "FDI Contribution to Capital Flows and Investment in Capacity," NBER Working Papers 9204, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
    7. Chuhan, Punam & Perez-Quiros, Gabriel & Popper, Helen, 1996. "International capital flows : do short-term investment and direct investment differ?," Policy Research Working Paper Series 1669, The World Bank.
    8. Joshua Aizenman & Nancy Marion, 2001. "The Merits of Horizontal versus Vertical FDI in the Presence of Uncertainty," NBER Working Papers 8631, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
    9. Dunning, John H, 1973. "The Determinants of International Production," Oxford Economic Papers, Oxford University Press, vol. 25(3), pages 289-336, November.
    10. Gene M. Grossman & Elhanan Helpman & Adam Szeidl, 2005. "Complementarities between Outsourcing and Foreign Sourcing," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 95(2), pages 19-24, May.
    11. Holt, Richard W. P., 2003. "Investment and dividends under irreversibility and financial constraints," Journal of Economic Dynamics and Control, Elsevier, vol. 27(3), pages 467-502, January.
    12. James R. Markusen & Keith E. Maskus, 2001. "General-Equilibrium Approaches to the Multinational Firm: A Review of Theory and Evidence," NBER Working Papers 8334, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
    13. Dixit, Avinash K & Stiglitz, Joseph E, 1975. "Monopolistic Competition and Optimum Product Diversity," The Warwick Economics Research Paper Series (TWERPS) 64, University of Warwick, Department of Economics.
    14. Itay Goldstein & Assaf Razin, 2005. "Foreign Direct Investment vs. Foreiegn Portfolio Investment," NBER Working Papers 11047, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
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