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FDI versus Exports. Substitutes or Complements? A Three Nation Model and Empirical Evidence

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  • Harald Oberhofer

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  • Michael Pfaffermayr

    ()

Abstract

There are two main options for companies to serve foreign markets: exports and foreign direct investment (FDI). Based on the Helpman, Melitz and Yeaple (2004) model for two host countries this paper derives a clear theoretical prediction for the decision between both strategies. A bivariate probit model is estimated using AMADEUS database to analyse the probability of using one or the other strategy. The empirical evidence indicates that a considerable number of companies use a combination of both strategies to serve foreign markets, which is in line with the analyzed three country model.

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Bibliographic Info

Paper provided by Faculty of Economics and Statistics, University of Innsbruck in its series Working Papers with number 2007-28.

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Length: 32
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Handle: RePEc:inn:wpaper:2007-28

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Keywords: Exports; Foreing Direct Investment; Three Nation Model; Bivariate Probit Estimation;

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References

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  1. Rafael Rob & Nikolaos Vettas, 2003. "Foreign Direct Investment and Exports with Growing Demand," PIER Working Paper Archive 03-001, Penn Institute for Economic Research, Department of Economics, University of Pennsylvania.
  2. Sourafel Girma & Richard Kneller & Mauro Pisu, 2005. "Exports versus FDI: An Empirical Test," Review of World Economics (Weltwirtschaftliches Archiv), Springer, vol. 141(2), pages 193-218, July.
  3. James B. Davies & Martin G. Kocher & Matthias Sutter, 2007. "Economics Research in Canada: A Long-Run Assessment of Journal Publications," UWO Department of Economics Working Papers 20072, University of Western Ontario, Department of Economics.
  4. Markusen, James R. & Venables, Anthony J., 1998. "Multinational firms and the new trade theory," Journal of International Economics, Elsevier, vol. 46(2), pages 183-203, December.
  5. Kocher, Martin G. & Cherry, Todd & Kroll, Stephan & Netzer, Robert J. & Sutter, Matthias, 2008. "Conditional cooperation on three continents," Economics Letters, Elsevier, vol. 101(3), pages 175-178, December.
  6. Horst, Thomas, 1971. "The Theory of the Multinational Firm: Optimal Behavior under Different Tariff and Tax Rates," Journal of Political Economy, University of Chicago Press, vol. 79(5), pages 1059-72, Sept.-Oct.
  7. Dixit, Avinash K & Stiglitz, Joseph E, 1977. "Monopolistic Competition and Optimum Product Diversity," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 67(3), pages 297-308, June.
  8. Elhanan Helpman & Marc J. Melitz & Stephen R. Yeaple, 2004. "Export Versus FDI with Heterogeneous Firms," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 94(1), pages 300-316, March.
  9. Inmaculada Martinez-Zarzoso & Celestino Suarez-Burguet, 2005. "Transport costs and trade: Empirical evidence for Latin American imports from the European union," The Journal of International Trade & Economic Development, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 14(3), pages 353-371.
  10. Richard Baldwin, 2005. "Heterogeneous Firms and Trade: Testable and Untestable Properties of the Melitz Model," NBER Working Papers 11471, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  11. James R. Markusen & Anthony J. Venables, 1996. "The Theory of Endowment, Intra-Industry, and Multinational Trade," NBER Working Papers 5529, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  12. Keith Head & John Ries, 2003. "Heterogeneity and the FDI versus Export Decision of Japanese Manufacturers," NBER Working Papers 10052, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  13. Markusen, James R., 2002. "Multinational Firms and the Theory of International Trade," MPRA Paper 8380, University Library of Munich, Germany.
  14. Andrea M. Leiter & Harald Oberhofer & Paul A. Raschky, . "Productive disasters? Evidence from European firm level data," Working Papers 2007-25, Faculty of Economics and Statistics, University of Innsbruck.
  15. Keith Head & John Ries, 2004. "Exporting and FDI as Alternative Strategies," Oxford Review of Economic Policy, Oxford University Press, vol. 20(3), pages 409-423, Autumn.
  16. Jesus Crespo Cuaresma & Neil Foster & Johann Scharler, 2007. "Barriers to Technology Adoption, International R&D Spillovers and Growth," Working Papers 2007-09, Faculty of Economics and Statistics, University of Innsbruck.
  17. Hanke, Michael & Huber, Jürgen & Kirchler, Michael & Sutter, Matthias, 2010. "The economic consequences of a Tobin tax--An experimental analysis," Journal of Economic Behavior & Organization, Elsevier, vol. 74(1-2), pages 58-71, May.
  18. Jaya Prakash Pradhan, 2004. "The determinants of outward foreign direct investment: a firm-level analysis of Indian manufacturing," Oxford Development Studies, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 32(4), pages 619-639.
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Citations

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Cited by:
  1. Buch, Claudia M. & Kesternich, Iris & Lipponer, Alexander & Schnitzer, Monika, 2010. "Exports Versus FDI Revisited: Does Finance Matter?," Discussion Paper Series of SFB/TR 15 Governance and the Efficiency of Economic Systems 340, Free University of Berlin, Humboldt University of Berlin, University of Bonn, University of Mannheim, University of Munich.
  2. Raphaël Chiappini, 2011. "FDI and trade: A Granger causality analysis in a heterogeneous panel," Post-Print halshs-00853441, HAL.
  3. Raphaël Chiappini, 2011. "FDI and trade: A Granger causality analysis in a heterogeneous panel," Economics Bulletin, AccessEcon, vol. 31(4), pages 2975-2985.
  4. Martin Falk & Mariya Hake, 2008. "A Panel Data Analysis on FDI and Exports," FIW Research Reports series I-012, FIW.

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