Racial and Ethnic Inequality in Employer Provided Fringe Benefits
AbstractWe examine racial and ethnic inequality in offers of employer provided fringe benefits (health insurance, life insurance and pension). Restricting to full-time workers in the private sector, we find that African Americans are significantly less likely to get fringe benefit offers than non-Hispanic whites after we control for individual differences in age and youth characteristics that matter for labor market success using the 1979 cohort of the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth. We do not find ethnic differences in the 1979 cohort or racial/ethnic differences in the 1997 cohort to be significantly large after controlling for individual differences in age and youth characteristics. Irrespective of race, ethnicity, gender or cohort, we always find that older workers are more likely to get fringe benefit offers as are workers with higher cognitive ability and years of education at age 22. We find that the cross-sections from the 1979 cohort of the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth have more fringe benefit offers than cross-sections from the 1997 cohort. A large part of the difference across cohorts can be explained by the older age profile of cross-sections from the 1979 cohort. Some part of the difference across cohorts can also be explained by differences in family background characteristics, particularly changing family structures which are important for non-Hispanic whites and for African American men. Improvements in cognitive ability and years of education at age 22 for the 1997 cohort increase the unexplained difference in fringe benefit offers across the two cohorts for women (irrespective of race or ethnicity), but not for men.
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Bibliographic InfoPaper provided by Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA) in its series IZA Discussion Papers with number 6255.
Length: 31 pages
Date of creation: Dec 2011
Date of revision:
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Find related papers by JEL classification:
- I11 - Health, Education, and Welfare - - Health - - - Analysis of Health Care Markets
- J15 - Labor and Demographic Economics - - Demographic Economics - - - Economics of Minorities, Races, Indigenous Peoples, and Immigrants; Non-labor Discrimination
- J32 - Labor and Demographic Economics - - Wages, Compensation, and Labor Costs - - - Nonwage Labor Costs and Benefits; Retirement Plans; Private Pensions
This paper has been announced in the following NEP Reports:
- NEP-ALL-2012-01-25 (All new papers)
- NEP-DEM-2012-01-25 (Demographic Economics)
- NEP-HME-2012-01-25 (Heterodox Microeconomics)
- NEP-LAB-2012-01-25 (Labour Economics)
- NEP-LMA-2012-01-25 (Labor Markets - Supply, Demand, & Wages)
- NEP-LTV-2012-01-25 (Unemployment, Inequality & Poverty)
Please report citation or reference errors to , or , if you are the registered author of the cited work, log in to your RePEc Author Service profile, click on "citations" and make appropriate adjustments.:
- Helen Levy, 2006. "Health Insurance and the Wage Gap," NBER Working Papers 11975, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
- Kevin Lang & Michael Manove, 2006.
"Education and Labor-Market Discrimination,"
NBER Working Papers
12257, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
- Kevin Lang & Michael Manove, 2006. "Education and Labor-Market Discrimination," Boston University - Department of Economics - Working Papers Series WP2006-008, Boston University - Department of Economics.
- Joseph G. Altonji & Prashant Bharadwaj & Fabian Lange, 2012.
"Changes in the Characteristics of American Youth: Implications for Adult Outcomes,"
Journal of Labor Economics,
University of Chicago Press, vol. 30(4), pages 783 - 828.
- Joseph G. Altonji & Prashant Bharadwaj & Fabian Lange, 2008. "Changes in the Characteristics of American Youth: Implications for Adult Outcomes," NBER Working Papers 13883, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
- Mok, Wallace & Siddique, Zahra, 2009. "Racial Differences in Fringe Benefits and Compensation," IZA Discussion Papers 4435, Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA).
- Winters, John V. & Hirsch, Barry, 2012. "An Anatomy of Racial and Ethnic Trends in Male Earnings," IZA Discussion Papers 6766, Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA).
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