Brainy Africans to Fortress Europe: For Money or Colonial Vestiges?
AbstractEconomic reasons along with cultural affinities and the existence of networks have been the main determinants explaining migration flows between home and host countries. This paper reconsiders these approaches combined with the gravity model and empirically tests the hypothesis that ex-colonial links can still play an important role in the emigration decision. We employ a general linear mixed model, and apply it to the case of skilled, educated and talented Africans, who migrate to Fortress Europe over the period of 1990 to 2001. While we find some differences in the exodus of skilled Africans by sub-regions, the magnitude of the colonial vestige in Africa is a significant determinant of emigration flows. Overall, Portugal is preferred to the UK which is preferred more than Belgium, Germany and Italy. Brainy Africans are, however, indifferent between the UK, France and Spain as a destination country. Established immigrant networks and higher standards of living with job opportunities in the host country are also very important drivers of the emigration of brainy Africans to the European ex-colonial powers.
Download InfoIf you experience problems downloading a file, check if you have the proper application to view it first. In case of further problems read the IDEAS help page. Note that these files are not on the IDEAS site. Please be patient as the files may be large.
Bibliographic InfoPaper provided by Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA) in its series IZA Discussion Papers with number 4615.
Length: 48 pages
Date of creation: Dec 2009
Date of revision:
Contact details of provider:
Postal: IZA, P.O. Box 7240, D-53072 Bonn, Germany
Phone: +49 228 3894 223
Fax: +49 228 3894 180
Web page: http://www.iza.org
Postal: IZA, Margard Ody, P.O. Box 7240, D-53072 Bonn, Germany
Other versions of this item:
- Amelie F. Constant & Bienvenue N. Tien, 2009. "Brainy Africans to Fortress Europe: For Money or Colonial Vestiges?," Discussion Papers of DIW Berlin 965, DIW Berlin, German Institute for Economic Research.
- F22 - International Economics - - International Factor Movements and International Business - - - International Migration
- O15 - Economic Development, Technological Change, and Growth - - Economic Development - - - Economic Development: Human Resources; Human Development; Income Distribution; Migration
- J61 - Labor and Demographic Economics - - Mobility, Unemployment, Vacancies, and Immigrant Workers - - - Geographic Labor Mobility; Immigrant Workers
This paper has been announced in the following NEP Reports:
- NEP-AFR-2009-12-11 (Africa)
- NEP-ALL-2009-12-11 (All new papers)
- NEP-EEC-2009-12-11 (European Economics)
- NEP-INT-2009-12-11 (International Trade)
- NEP-MIG-2009-12-11 (Economics of Human Migration)
Please report citation or reference errors to , or , if you are the registered author of the cited work, log in to your RePEc Author Service profile, click on "citations" and make appropriate adjustments.:
- Kohnert, Dirk, 2007.
"African Migration to Europe:Obscured Responsibilities and Common Misconceptions,"
3360, University Library of Munich, Germany.
- Dirk Kohnert, 2007. "African Migration to Europe: Obscured Responsibilities and Common Misconceptions," GIGA Working Paper Series 49, GIGA German Institute of Global and Area Studies.
- Peter J. Kuhn & Carol McAusland, 2006.
"The International Migration of Knowledge Workers: When is Brain Drain Beneficial?,"
NBER Working Papers
12761, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
- Kuhn, Peter J. & McAusland, Carol, 2006. "The International Migration of Knowledge Workers: When Is Brain Drain Beneficial?," IZA Discussion Papers 2493, Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA).
- Hatton, Timothy J & Williamson, Jeffrey G, 2002. "Out of Africa? Using the Past to Project African Emigration Pressure in the Future," Review of International Economics, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 10(3), pages 556-73, August.
- Ajay Agrawal & Devesh Kapur & John McHale, 2008.
"Brain Drain or Brain Bank? The Impact of Skilled Emigration on Poor-Country Innovation,"
NBER Working Papers
14592, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
- Agrawal, Ajay & Kapur, Devesh & McHale, John & Oettl, Alexander, 2011. "Brain drain or brain bank? The impact of skilled emigration on poor-country innovation," Journal of Urban Economics, Elsevier, vol. 69(1), pages 43-55, January.
- FrÃ©dÃ©ric Docquier & B. Lindsay Lowell & Abdeslam Marfouk, 2009. "A Gendered Assessment of Highly Skilled Emigration," Population and Development Review, The Population Council, Inc., The Population Council, Inc., vol. 35(2), pages 297-321.
- Beine, Michel & Docquier, FrÃ©dÃ©ric & Schiff, Maurice, 2008. "Brain Drain and its Determinants: A Major Issue for Small States," IZA Discussion Papers 3398, Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA).
- Docquier, Frederic & Marfouk, Abdeslam, 2004. "Measuring the international mobility of skilled workers (1990-2000) : release 1.0," Policy Research Working Paper Series 3381, The World Bank.
- Hatton, Timothy J. & Williamson, Jeffrey G., 2001.
"Demographic and Economic Pressure on Emigration out of Africa,"
IZA Discussion Papers
250, Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA).
- Timothy J. Hatton & Jeffrey G. Williamson, 2003. "Demographic and Economic Pressure on Emigration out of Africa," Scandinavian Journal of Economics, Wiley Blackwell, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 105(3), pages 465-486, 09.
- Timothy J. Hatton & Jeffrey G. Williamson, 2001. "Demographic and Economic Pressure on Emigration Out of Africa," NBER Working Papers 8124, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
- Frederic, DOCQUIER & Olivier, LOHEST & Abdeslam, MARFOUK, 2007.
"Brain drain in developing countries,"
Discussion Papers (ECON - DÃ©partement des Sciences Economiques), UniversitÃ© catholique de Louvain, DÃ©partement des Sciences Economiques
2007004, UniversitÃ© catholique de Louvain, DÃ©partement des Sciences Economiques.
- William Carrington & Enrica Detragiache, 1998. "How Big is the Brain Drain?," IMF Working Papers 98/102, International Monetary Fund.
- RosalindS. Hunter & Andrew J. Oswald & Bruce G. Charlton, 2009.
"The Elite Brain Drain,"
Economic Journal, Royal Economic Society,
Royal Economic Society, vol. 119(538), pages F231-F251, 06.
For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: (Mark Fallak).
If references are entirely missing, you can add them using this form.