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Are There Gender and Country of Origin Differences in Immigrant Labor Market Outcomes across European Destinations?

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  • Adsera, Alicia

    ()
    (Princeton University)

  • Chiswick, Barry R.

    ()
    (George Washington University)

Abstract

The paper uses the 1994-2000 waves of the European Community Household Panel to conduct a systematic analysis of the earnings of immigrants as compared to native workers, in particular to test whether there is any systematic variation in the labor market performance of immigrants across gender related to duration in the destination, schooling, age at immigration, country of origin, or country of destination. We find a significant negative effect of immigrant status on individual earnings of around 40% at the time of arrival in the pooled sample, although the difference is somewhat smaller for women. Those differences, however, vary greatly across countries with migrants in Germany and Portugal faring best relative to natives, and those in Sweden, Denmark, Luxembourg or Spain the worst, particularly among non-EU born migrants. Gender differences are more important among those born outside the European Union, with women doing relatively better than men. Among men, those from Asia, Latin-America and Eastern Europe receive the lowest earnings. Latin-American and Eastern European women are at the bottom of the women’s distribution. Earnings increase with duration in the destination and the foreign born “catch-up” to the native born, others variables being the same, at around 18 years in the destination among both men and women. Education matters more for women in terms of explaining earnings, whereas language skills are relatively more important for men.

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Bibliographic Info

Paper provided by Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA) in its series IZA Discussion Papers with number 1432.

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Length: 45 pages
Date of creation: Dec 2004
Date of revision:
Publication status: published in: Journal of Population Economics, 2007, 20 (3), 495-526
Handle: RePEc:iza:izadps:dp1432

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Keywords: immigrants; gender; earnings; countries of birth and destination; language;

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References

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  1. Deborah A. Cobb-Clark & Marie D. Connolly, 2001. "A Family Affair: The Labor Market Experience of Immigrant Spouses," Social Science Quarterly, Southwestern Social Science Association, vol. 82(4), pages 796-811.
  2. Baker, Michael & Benjamin, Dwayne, 1997. "The Role of the Family in Immigrants' Labor-Market Activity: An Evaluation of Alternative Explanations," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, American Economic Association, vol. 87(4), pages 705-27, September.
  3. Antecol, Heather & Cobb-Clark, Deborah A. & Trejo, Stephen, 2002. "Human Capital and Earnings of Female Immigrants to Australia, Canada, and the United States," IZA Discussion Papers 575, Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA).
  4. Reimers, Cordelia W, 1985. "Cultural Differences in Labor Force Participation among Married Women," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, American Economic Association, vol. 75(2), pages 251-55, May.
  5. David Neumark & Sanders Korenman, 1992. "Sources of Bias in Women's Wage Equations: Results Using Sibling Data," NBER Working Papers 4019, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  6. Long, James E, 1980. "The Effect of Americanization on Earnings: Some Evidence for Women," Journal of Political Economy, University of Chicago Press, University of Chicago Press, vol. 88(3), pages 620-29, June.
  7. Antecol, Heather, 2000. "An examination of cross-country differences in the gender gap in labor force participation rates," Labour Economics, Elsevier, Elsevier, vol. 7(4), pages 409-426, July.
  8. Harriet Duleep & Seth Sanders, 1993. "The decision to work by married immigrant women," Industrial and Labor Relations Review, ILR Review, Cornell University, ILR School, vol. 46(4), pages 677-690, July.
  9. Chiswick, Barry R, 1978. "The Effect of Americanization on the Earnings of Foreign-born Men," Journal of Political Economy, University of Chicago Press, University of Chicago Press, vol. 86(5), pages 897-921, October.
  10. Barry R. Chiswick, 1998. "Hebrew language usage: Determinants and effects on earnings among immigrants in Israel," Journal of Population Economics, Springer, Springer, vol. 11(2), pages 253-271.
  11. Mincer, Jacob, 1978. "Family Migration Decisions," Journal of Political Economy, University of Chicago Press, University of Chicago Press, vol. 86(5), pages 749-73, October.
  12. Chiswick, Barry R & Miller, Paul W, 1995. "The Endogeneity between Language and Earnings: International Analyses," Journal of Labor Economics, University of Chicago Press, University of Chicago Press, vol. 13(2), pages 246-88, April.
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