Do Workers Work More When Wages Are High? Evidence from a Randomized Field Experiment
AbstractMost previous studies on intertemporal labor supply found very small or insignificant substitution effects. It is not clear, however, whether these results are due to institutional constraints on workers’ labor supply choices or whether the behavioral assumptions of the standard life cycle model with time separable preferences are empirically invalid. We conducted a randomized field experiment in a setting in which workers were free to choose their working times and their efforts during working time. We document a large positive wage elasticity of overall labor supply and an even larger wage elasticity of labor hours, which implies that the wage elasticity of effort per hour is negative. While the standard life cycle model cannot explain the negative effort elasticity, we show that a modified neoclassical model with preference spillovers across periods and a model with reference dependent, loss averse preferences are consistent with the evidence. With the help of a further experiment we can show that only loss averse individuals exhibit a significantly negative effort response to the wage increase and that the degree of loss aversion predicts the size of the negative effort response.
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Bibliographic InfoPaper provided by Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA) in its series IZA Discussion Papers with number 1002.
Length: 48 pages
Date of creation: Jan 2004
Date of revision:
Publication status: published in: American Economic Review, 2007, 97 (1), 298-317
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Find related papers by JEL classification:
- J22 - Labor and Demographic Economics - - Demand and Supply of Labor - - - Time Allocation and Labor Supply
- C93 - Mathematical and Quantitative Methods - - Design of Experiments - - - Field Experiments
- B49 - Schools of Economic Thought and Methodology - - Economic Methodology - - - Other
This paper has been announced in the following NEP Reports:
- NEP-ALL-2004-02-23 (All new papers)
- NEP-CBE-2004-02-23 (Cognitive & Behavioural Economics)
- NEP-LAB-2004-02-23 (Labour Economics)
- NEP-LTV-2004-02-23 (Unemployment, Inequality & Poverty)
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