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Financing Health Care Expenditure in the OECD Countries: Evidence from a Heterogeneous, Cross-Sectionally Dependent Panel

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  • Felipa de Mello-Sampayo
  • Sofia de Sousa Vale

Abstract

As apresentações habituais do modelo Hecksher-Ohlin (HO) nos livros de texto têm quatro problemas: análise por vezes superficial dos mecanismos económicos relevantes; escassa ilustração através de exemplos económicos concretos da capacidade explicativa do modelo; utilização de análises matemática e sobretudo gráfica frequentemente desnecessárias; e utilização da hipótese, muito discutível, de que a remuneração de um factor é determinada pela sua produtividade marginal – opção que acaba por afastar a discussão da realidade económica concreta. Estes problemas – designadamente, a ênfase na análise formal e o défice de análise económica e de exemplos ilustrativos - conferem um “sabor artificial” ao modelo HO, tornando-o pouco credível. O presente artigo pretende dar um contributo para a resolução deste problema, apresentando uma exposição do modelo HO diferente das habituais nos livros de texto. São de destacar os seguintes contributos: i) a precisão da noção de “preço do capital”; ii) o esclarecimento da noção de abundância de capital; iii) a recuperação de exemplos do texto clássico de Ohlin muito elucidativos a respeito da capacidade explicativa do teorema HO; iv) uma possível explicação para o paradoxo de Leontieff; v) a ilustração do efeito da especialização sobre os preços relativos dos factores e dos bens com base em gráficos diferentes dos habituais; vi) uma explicação para a origem dos ganhos do comércio diferente da tradicional; vii) a discussão do efeito do comércio sobre o rendimento real dos factores sem a utilização da hipótese – muito discutível - de que a remuneração de um factor é determinada pela sua produtividade marginal; viii) a discussão do efeito que o comércio e o progresso técnico terão tido sobre a evolução dos salários reais de trabalhadores americanos com diferentes níveis de qualificação desde 1979; ix) por último, a explicação do teorema de Rybczynski a partir de um exemplo concreto: o aprofundamento da especialização portuguesa em têxteis, vestuário e calçado na década a seguir ao 25 de Abril de 1974. JEL Classification: C33; H51; I10;

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Bibliographic Info

Paper provided by ISEG - School of Economics and Management, Department of Economics, University of Lisbon in its series Working Papers Department of Economics with number 2012/34.

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Date of creation: Sep 2012
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Handle: RePEc:ise:isegwp:wp342012

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Postal: Department of Economics, ISEG - School of Economics and Management, University of Lisbon, Rua do Quelhas 6, 1200-781 LISBON, PORTUGAL
Web page: https://aquila1.iseg.ulisboa.pt/aquila/departamentos/EC

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Keywords: Health Expenditure; Drivers of Health Expenditure; Panel Unit Root Tests; Panel Cointegration; Cross Section Dependence model.;

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