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Tying and Freebies in Two-Sided Markets

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  • Amelio, Andrea
  • Jullien, Bruno

Abstract

In two-sided markets where platforms are constrained to set non-negative prices, tying can be deployed by platforms as a tool to introduce implicit subsidies. For a monopoly, this raises participation and benefits consumers on both sides. In a duopoly, tying on one side makes a platform more or less competitive on the other side depending on externalities. Tying may not be ex-ante optimal while the competing platform may benefit from it. The impact on consumers' surplus depends on whether competition is softened or intensified on the profitable side. Moreover tying increases total welfare if network effects are strong.

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Bibliographic Info

Paper provided by Institut d'Économie Industrielle (IDEI), Toulouse in its series IDEI Working Papers with number 445.

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Date of creation: Mar 2007
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Publication status: Published in International Journal of Industrial Organization, vol.�30, 2012, p.�436-446.
Handle: RePEc:ide:wpaper:6750

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References

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  1. Schmalensee, Richard, 1984. "Gaussian Demand and Commodity Bundling," The Journal of Business, University of Chicago Press, vol. 57(1), pages S211-30, January.
  2. Mark Armstrong, 2005. "Competition in Two-Sided Markets," Industrial Organization 0505009, EconWPA.
  3. Jay Pil Choi, 2010. "TYING IN TWO-SIDED MARKETS WITH MULTI-HOMING -super-* ," Journal of Industrial Economics, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 58(3), pages 607-626, 09.
  4. repec:rje:randje:v:37:y:2006:3:p:668-691 is not listed on IDEAS
  5. Milgrom, P. & Shannon, C., 1991. "Monotone Comparative Statics," Papers 11, Stanford - Institute for Thoretical Economics.
  6. Michael D. Whinston, 1989. "Tying, Foreclosure, and Exclusion," NBER Working Papers 2995, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  7. Amelio, Andrea & Jullien, Bruno, 2012. "Tying and freebies in two-sided markets," International Journal of Industrial Organization, Elsevier, vol. 30(5), pages 436-446.
  8. Adams, William James & Yellen, Janet L, 1976. "Commodity Bundling and the Burden of Monopoly," The Quarterly Journal of Economics, MIT Press, vol. 90(3), pages 475-98, August.
  9. Rochet Jean-Charles & Tirole Jean, 2003. "An Economic Analysis of the Determination of Interchange Fees in Payment Card Systems," Review of Network Economics, De Gruyter, vol. 2(2), pages 1-11, June.
  10. Caillaud, Bernard & Jullien, Bruno, 2003. " Chicken & Egg: Competition among Intermediation Service Providers," RAND Journal of Economics, The RAND Corporation, vol. 34(2), pages 309-28, Summer.
  11. Bruno Jullien, 2011. "Competition in Multi-sided Markets: Divide and Conquer," American Economic Journal: Microeconomics, American Economic Association, vol. 3(4), pages 186-220, November.
  12. Evans David S., 2003. "Some Empirical Aspects of Multi-sided Platform Industries," Review of Network Economics, De Gruyter, vol. 2(3), pages 1-19, September.
  13. Rochet, Jean-Charles & Tirole, Jean, 2005. "Two-Sided Markets : A Progress Report," IDEI Working Papers 275, Institut d'Économie Industrielle (IDEI), Toulouse.
  14. Bruno Jullien, 2004. "Two-Sided Markets and Electronic Intermediaries," CESifo Working Paper Series 1345, CESifo Group Munich.
  15. repec:rje:randje:v:37:y:2006:3:p:645-667 is not listed on IDEAS
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Cited by:
  1. David S. Evans & Richard Schmalensee, 2013. "The Antitrust Analysis of Multi-Sided Platform Businesses," NBER Working Papers 18783, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  2. Jay Pil Choi, 2006. "Tying in Two-Sided Markets with Multi-Homing," Working Papers 06-04, NET Institute, revised Sep 2006.
  3. Nicholas Economides & Joacim Tåg, 2007. "Net Neutrality on the Internet: A Two-sided Market Analysis," Working Papers 07-14, NET Institute, revised Sep 2007.
  4. Jullien, Bruno & Pavan, Alessandro, 2013. "Platform Pricing under Dispersed Information," TSE Working Papers 13-429, Toulouse School of Economics (TSE).
  5. Buechel, Berno & Klein, Jan, 2014. "Do Consumers' Preferences Really Matter? - A Note on Spatial Competition with Restricted Strategies," MPRA Paper 55288, University Library of Munich, Germany.
  6. Amelio, Andrea & Jullien, Bruno, 2012. "Tying and freebies in two-sided markets," International Journal of Industrial Organization, Elsevier, vol. 30(5), pages 436-446.
  7. Jullien, Bruno, 2010. "Two-Sided B2B Platforms," IDEI Working Papers 652, Institut d'Économie Industrielle (IDEI), Toulouse, revised Mar 2011.

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