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Un nuevo vistazo a los efectos en la capacidad de empleo de los programas de capacitación para desempleados en países en desarrollo

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  • Angel Calderon Madrid
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    Abstract

    (Disponible en idioma inglés únicamente) Los conjuntos de datos que se emplean para las evaluaciones en países en desarrollo no se prestan para cuantificar los efectos de los programas de capacitación sobre la dinámica de nuevo empleo de quienes reciben la capacitación. Una excepción es el conjunto de datos recopilados para una evaluación realizada en 1994 de participantes en un programa de capacitación dirigido a desempleados en México. Además de contar con un grupo de control de individuos que cumplen con los requisitos y que no participaron en el programa, este conjunto de datos es el único con datos longitudinales que cubren no sólo la duración de los episodios de desempleo después de que el individuo encuestado recibió la capacitación, sino además la duración de sus lapsos de empleo. Se emplean estos datos para estimar las semanas adicionales que trabajan los individuos gracias a la capacitación, en comparación con el caso en que no hay capacitación. Basándonos en funciones de riesgo, calculamos los efectos de un programa tanto sobre el tiempo que se pasa buscando empleo como sobre la duración del empleo. Demostramos que no poder distinguir entre hallar un empleo sostenido y hallar un empleo puede llevar a conclusiones engañosas sobre la eficacia de los programas. También ilustramos la necesidad de corregir la heterogeneidad no observada entre individuos en funciones de riesgo, para evitar implicaciones engañosas en una evaluación.

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    Bibliographic Info

    Paper provided by Inter-American Development Bank, Research Department in its series Research Department Publications with number 3225.

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    Date of creation: May 2006
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    Handle: RePEc:idb:wpaper:3225

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    1. Bonnal, Liliane & Fougere, Denis & Serandon, Anne, 1997. "Evaluating the Impact of French Employment Policies on Individual Labour Market Histories," Review of Economic Studies, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 64(4), pages 683-713, October.
    2. Jaap H. Abbring & Gerard J. van den Berg, 2003. "The Nonparametric Identification of Treatment Effects in Duration Models," Econometrica, Econometric Society, vol. 71(5), pages 1491-1517, 09.
    3. Meyer, Bruce D, 1990. "Unemployment Insurance and Unemployment Spells," Econometrica, Econometric Society, vol. 58(4), pages 757-82, July.
    4. Jovanovic, Boyan, 1979. "Job Matching and the Theory of Turnover," Journal of Political Economy, University of Chicago Press, vol. 87(5), pages 972-90, October.
    5. Van den Berg, Gerard J., 2001. "Duration models: specification, identification and multiple durations," Handbook of Econometrics, in: J.J. Heckman & E.E. Leamer (ed.), Handbook of Econometrics, edition 1, volume 5, chapter 55, pages 3381-3460 Elsevier.
    6. Ham, John C & LaLonde, Robert J, 1996. "The Effect of Sample Selection and Initial Conditions in Duration Models: Evidence from Experimental Data on Training," Econometrica, Econometric Society, vol. 64(1), pages 175-205, January.
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