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Does shadow education help students prepare for college?

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  • Prashant Loyalka

    ()
    (Stanford University.)

  • Andrey Zakharov

    ()
    (National Research University Higher School of Economics. International Laboratory for Educational Policy Research. Deputy Head.)

Abstract

High school students, across the world, prepare for college by participating in shadow education. Despite substantial investments in shadow education, however, little is known about whether it helps students prepare for college. The goal of our study is to provide rigorous evidence about the causal impacts of participating in shadow education on college preparation. We analyze unique data from Russia using a cross-subject student fixed effects model. We find that participating in shadow education positively impacts high-achieving students but not low-achieving students. Participating in shadow education further does not lead students to substitute time away from other out-of-school studies. Instead, the results suggest that low-achieving students participate in low-quality shadow education, which, in turn, contributes to inequality in college access

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Bibliographic Info

Paper provided by National Research University Higher School of Economics in its series HSE Working papers with number WP BRP 15/EDU/2014.

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Length: 25 pages
Date of creation: 2014
Date of revision:
Publication status: Published in WP BRP Series: Education / EDU, January 2014, pages 1-25
Handle: RePEc:hig:wpaper:15edu2014

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Keywords: shadow education; private tutoring; college access; inequality; causal methods;

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  1. Tansel, Aysit & Bircan, Fatma, 2005. "Effect of Private Tutoring on University Entrance Examination Performance in Turkey," IZA Discussion Papers 1609, Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA).
  2. Thomas S. Dee, 2005. "A Teacher Like Me: Does Race, Ethnicity, or Gender Matter?," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 95(2), pages 158-165, May.
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  5. Justine S. Hastings & Jeffrey M. Weinstein, 2007. "Information, School Choice, and Academic Achievement: Evidence from Two Experiments," NBER Working Papers 13623, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  6. Hai-Anh Dang & F. Halsey Rogers, 2008. "The Growing Phenomenon of Private Tutoring: Does It Deepen Human Capital, Widen Inequalities, or Waste Resources?," World Bank Research Observer, World Bank Group, vol. 23(2), pages 161-200, April.
  7. Dang, Hai-Anh, 2007. "The determinants and impact of private tutoring classes in Vietnam," Economics of Education Review, Elsevier, vol. 26(6), pages 683-698, December.
  8. Geeta Kingdon & Francis Teal, 2008. "Teacher Unions, Teacher Pay and Student Performance in India: A Pupil Fixed Effects Approach," CESifo Working Paper Series 2428, CESifo Group Munich.
  9. Ben B. Hansen, 2004. "Full Matching in an Observational Study of Coaching for the SAT," Journal of the American Statistical Association, American Statistical Association, vol. 99, pages 609-618, January.
  10. Charles T. Clotfelter & Helen F. Ladd & Jacob L. Vigdor, 2007. "Teacher Credentials and Student Achievement in High School: A Cross-Subject Analysis with Student Fixed Effects," NBER Working Papers 13617, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
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