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The Growing Phenomenon of Private Tutoring: Does It Deepen Human Capital, Widen Inequalities, or Waste Resources?

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  • Hai-Anh Dang
  • F. Halsey Rogers

Abstract

Does private tutoring increase parental choice and improve student achievement, or does it exacerbate social inequalities and impose heavy costs on households, possibly without improving student outcomes? Private tutoring is now a major component of the education sector in many developing countries, yet education policy too seldom acknowledges or makes use of it. This survey of the literature examines the extent of private tutoring, identifies the factors that explain its growth, and analyzes its cost-effectiveness in improving student academic performance. It also presents a framework for assessing the efficiency and equity effects of tutoring. The results suggest that even taking equity concerns into account, tutoring can raise the effectiveness of the education system under certain reasonable assumptions. Guidance is offered for attacking corruption and other problems that diminish the benefits of private tutoring. Copyright The Author 2008. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the International Bank for Reconstruction and Development / the world bank . All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oxfordjournals.org, Oxford University Press.

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Bibliographic Info

Article provided by World Bank Group in its journal The World Bank Research Observer.

Volume (Year): 23 (2008)
Issue (Month): 2 (April)
Pages: 161-200

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Handle: RePEc:oup:wbrobs:v:23:y:2008:i:2:p:161-200

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Cited by:
  1. Aysit Tansel, 2013. "Supplementary Education in Turkey: Recent Developments and Future Prospectss," Koç University-TUSIAD Economic Research Forum Working Papers 1319, Koc University-TUSIAD Economic Research Forum.
  2. Mohamad Fahmi & Achmad maulana & Arief Anshory Yusuf, 2013. "Complementary Policies to Increase Poor People’s Access to Higher Education: The Case of West Java, Indonesia," Working Papers in Economics and Development Studies (WoPEDS) 201301, Department of Economics, Padjadjaran University, revised Jan 2013.
  3. Breton, Theodore R., 2011. "The quality vs. the quantity of schooling: What drives economic growth?," Economics of Education Review, Elsevier, vol. 30(4), pages 765-773, August.
  4. Mohamad Fahmi & Achmad Maulana & Ariek A. Yusuf, 2013. "Complementary Policies to Increase Poor People’s Access to Higher Education: the Case of West Java, Indonesia," Working Papers 2013/23, Maastricht School of Management.
  5. Dridi, Mohamed, 2013. "Corruption dans le Secteur d'Education : Une Typologie de Conséquences
    [Corruption Within Education Sector : A Typology of Consequences]
    ," MPRA Paper 46874, University Library of Munich, Germany.
  6. Dang, Hai-Anh H., 2013. "Private tutoring in Vietnam : a review of current issues and its major correlates," Policy Research Working Paper Series 6618, The World Bank.
  7. Dang, Hai-Anh H. & King, Elizabeth M., 2013. "Incentives and teacher effort: further evidence from a developing country," Policy Research Working Paper Series 6694, The World Bank.
  8. Dang, Hai-Anh & Rogers, Halsey, 2013. "The decision to invest in child quality over quantity : household size and household investment in education in Vietnam," Policy Research Working Paper Series 6487, The World Bank.
  9. MacLeod, W. Bentley & Urquiola, Miguel, 2012. "Competition and Educational Productivity: Incentives Writ Large," IZA Discussion Papers 7063, Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA).
  10. CHOI, Álvaro, 2010. "Analysis Of Private Tutoring Decisions In Korea: A Game Theory Approach," Regional and Sectoral Economic Studies, Euro-American Association of Economic Development, vol. 10(3).
  11. Prashant Loyalka & Andrey Zakharov, 2014. "Does shadow education help students prepare for college?," HSE Working papers WP BRP 15/EDU/2014, National Research University Higher School of Economics.
  12. Dang, Hai-Anh & Sarr, Leopold & Asadullah, Niaz, 2011. "School Access, Resources, and Learning Outcomes: Evidence from a Non-formal School Program in Bangladesh," IZA Discussion Papers 5659, Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA).
  13. Stefanie Hof, 2014. "Does Private Tutoring Work? The Effectiveness of Private Tutoring: A Nonparametric Bounds Analysis," Economics of Education Working Paper Series 0096, University of Zurich, Institute for Strategy and Business Economics (ISU).

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