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War and the Destruction of Human Capital

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  • Jorge M. Agüero

    ()
    (University of Connecticut)

  • Muhammad Farhan Majid

    ()
    (University of Pennsylvania)

Abstract

The identification of the effect of wars on human capital tends to focus on the population of school age children at the time of the conflict. Our paper introduces a methodology to estimate the effect of war on the stock of human capital by examining the changes in the presence of educated people after the Rwanda genocide. We find that the genocide reduced the stock of human capital in Rwanda severely. The before-and-after results show that highly educated individuals (i.e., those with primary education or more) are “missing” at a rate that is 19.4% higher than the less educated. Moreover, Rwanda's average years of schooling is lower by 0.37 years. When comparisons with Uganda are made, these estimates more than double suggesting that, if anything, the previous finding were biased downwards. Interestingly, when the cross-sectional variation within Rwanda variation in intensity of genocide is exploited there is no evidence of statistically significant differences. This suggests that the losses in the stock of human capital due to the Rwandan genocide were aggregate in nature.

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Bibliographic Info

Paper provided by Households in Conflict Network in its series HiCN Working Papers with number 163.

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Length: 39 pages
Date of creation: Jan 2014
Date of revision:
Handle: RePEc:hic:wpaper:163

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Web page: http://www.hicn.org

Related research

Keywords: Civil war; Mortality; Education; Human capital; Education; Genocide; Africa;

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  1. David Cutler & Angus Deaton & Adriana Lleras-Muney, 2006. "The Determinants of Mortality," Journal of Economic Perspectives, American Economic Association, American Economic Association, vol. 20(3), pages 97-120, Summer.
  2. Richard Akresh & Sonia Bhalotra & Marinella Leone & Una Osili, 2012. "War and Stature: Growing Up During the Nigerian Civil War," HiCN Working Papers, Households in Conflict Network 113, Households in Conflict Network.
  3. Richard Akresh & Leonardo Lucchetti & Harsha Thirumurthy, 2010. "Wars and Child Health: Evidence from the Eritrean-Ethiopian Conflict," HiCN Working Papers, Households in Conflict Network 89, Households in Conflict Network.
  4. Blattman, Christopher & Miguel, Edward, 2009. "Civil War," Center for International and Development Economics Research, Working Paper Series, Center for International and Development Economics Research, Institute for Business and Economic Research, UC Berkele qt90n356hs, Center for International and Development Economics Research, Institute for Business and Economic Research, UC Berkeley.
  5. Lucas, Robert Jr., 1988. "On the mechanics of economic development," Journal of Monetary Economics, Elsevier, Elsevier, vol. 22(1), pages 3-42, July.
  6. Richard Akresh & Damien de Walque, 2008. "Armed Conflict and Schooling: Evidence from the 1994 Rwandan Genocide," HiCN Working Papers, Households in Conflict Network 47, Households in Conflict Network.
  7. Rodrik, Dani, 1998. "Where Did all the Growth Go? External Shocks, Social Conflict and Growth Collapses," CEPR Discussion Papers, C.E.P.R. Discussion Papers 1789, C.E.P.R. Discussion Papers.
  8. Olga Shemyakina, 2006. "The Effect of Armed Conflict on Accumulation of Schooling: Results from Tajikistan," HiCN Working Papers, Households in Conflict Network 12, Households in Conflict Network.
  9. Lucia Breierova & Esther Duflo, 2003. "The Impact of Education on Fertility and Child Mortality: Do Fathers Really Matter Less Than Mothers?," OECD Development Centre Working Papers, OECD Publishing 217, OECD Publishing.
  10. de Walque, Damien & Verwimp, Philip, 2009. "The demographic and socio-economic distribution of excess mortality during the 1994 genocide in Rwanda," Policy Research Working Paper Series, The World Bank 4850, The World Bank.
  11. Alderman,Harold & Hoddinott, John & Kinsey, Bill, 2003. "Long-term consequences of early childhood malnutrition," FCND briefs, International Food Policy Research Institute (IFPRI) 168, International Food Policy Research Institute (IFPRI).
  12. Akresh, Richard & Verwimp, Philip & Bundervoet, Tom, 2007. "Civil war, crop failure, and child stunting in Rwanda," Policy Research Working Paper Series, The World Bank 4208, The World Bank.
  13. Mansour, Hani & Rees, Daniel I., 2012. "Armed conflict and birth weight: Evidence from the al-Aqsa Intifada," Journal of Development Economics, Elsevier, Elsevier, vol. 99(1), pages 190-199.
  14. Marianne Bertrand & Esther Duflo & Sendhil Mullainathan, 2004. "How Much Should We Trust Differences-in-Differences Estimates?," The Quarterly Journal of Economics, MIT Press, MIT Press, vol. 119(1), pages 249-275, February.
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