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War and Stature: Growing Up During the Nigerian Civil War

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Author Info

  • Akresh, Richard

    ()
    (University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign)

  • Bhalotra, Sonia R.

    ()
    (University of Essex)

  • Leone, Marinella

    ()
    (University of Sussex)

  • Osili, Una O.

    ()
    (Indiana University-Purdue University Indianapolis)

Abstract

The Nigerian civil war of 1967-70 was precipitated by secession of the Igbo-dominated south-eastern region to create the state of Biafra. It was the first civil war in Africa, the predecessor of many. We investigate the legacies of this war four decades later. Using variation across ethnicity and cohort, we identify significant long run impacts on human health capital. Individuals exposed to the war at all ages between birth and adolescence exhibit reduced adult stature and these impacts are largest in adolescence. Adult stature is portentous of reduced life expectancy and lower earnings.

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Bibliographic Info

Paper provided by Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA) in its series IZA Discussion Papers with number 6194.

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Length: 13 pages
Date of creation: Dec 2011
Date of revision:
Publication status: published in: American Economic Review, 2012, 102 (3), 273-277
Handle: RePEc:iza:izadps:dp6194

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Keywords: war; Nigeria; human capital investments; early life; height;

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References

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  1. Nicola Persico & Andrew Postlewaite & Dan Silverman, 2004. "The Effect of Adolescent Experience on Labor Market Outcomes: The Case of Height," Journal of Political Economy, University of Chicago Press, University of Chicago Press, vol. 112(5), pages 1019-1053, October.
  2. Anne Case & Christina Paxson, 2006. "Stature and Status: Height, Ability, and Labor Market Outcomes," NBER Working Papers 12466, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  3. Carlos Bozzoli & Angus Deaton & Climent Quintana-Domeque, 2009. "Adult height and childhood disease," Demography, Springer, Springer, vol. 46(4), pages 647-669, November.
  4. Flavio Cunha & James Heckman, 2007. "The Technology of Skill Formation," NBER Working Papers 12840, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  5. John Strauss & Duncan Thomas, 1998. "Health, Nutrition, and Economic Development," Journal of Economic Literature, American Economic Association, American Economic Association, vol. 36(2), pages 766-817, June.
  6. Thomas, Duncan & Strauss, John, 1997. "Health and wages: Evidence on men and women in urban Brazil," Journal of Econometrics, Elsevier, Elsevier, vol. 77(1), pages 159-185, March.
  7. Nicola Persico & Andrew Postlewaite & Dan Silverman, 2001. "The Effect of Adolescent Experience on Labor Market Outcomes: The Case of Height, Third Version," PIER Working Paper Archive, Penn Institute for Economic Research, Department of Economics, University of Pennsylvania 04-013, Penn Institute for Economic Research, Department of Economics, University of Pennsylvania, revised 05 Jan 2004.
  8. Bhalotra, Sonia & Rawlings, Samantha B., 2011. "Intergenerational persistence in health in developing countries: The penalty of gender inequality?," Journal of Public Economics, Elsevier, Elsevier, vol. 95(3), pages 286-299.
  9. Mark M. Pitt & Mark R. Rosenzweig & Mohammad Nazmul Hassan, 2012. "Human Capital Investment and the Gender Division of Labor in a Brawn-Based Economy," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, American Economic Association, vol. 102(7), pages 3531-60, December.
  10. Douglas Almond & Janet Currie, 2011. "Killing Me Softly: The Fetal Origins Hypothesis," Journal of Economic Perspectives, American Economic Association, American Economic Association, vol. 25(3), pages 153-72, Summer.
  11. Alexander Moradi, 2006. "Nutritional status and economic development in sub-Saharan Africa, 1950-1980," Economics Series Working Papers, University of Oxford, Department of Economics GPRG-WPS-046, University of Oxford, Department of Economics.
  12. T. Paul Schultz, 2002. "Wage Gains Associated with Height as a Form of Health Human Capital," Working Papers, Economic Growth Center, Yale University 841, Economic Growth Center, Yale University.
  13. T. Paul Schultz, 2002. "Wage Gains Associated with Height as a Form of Health Human Capital," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, American Economic Association, vol. 92(2), pages 349-353, May.
  14. Richard H. Steckel, 1995. "Stature and the Standard of Living," Journal of Economic Literature, American Economic Association, American Economic Association, vol. 33(4), pages 1903-1940, December.
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Blog mentions

As found by EconAcademics.org, the blog aggregator for Economics research:
  1. Conflicts and Economic Development
    by Dany Jaimovich - Bakary Baludin in Development Therapy on 2013-03-04 14:32:00
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Cited by:
  1. Patricia Justino, 2012. "Nutrition, Governance and Violence: A Framework for the Analysis of Resilience and Vulnerability to Food Insecurity in Contexts of Violent Conflict," HiCN Working Papers 132, Households in Conflict Network.
  2. Janet Currie & Tom Vogl, 2012. "Early-Life Health and Adult Circumstance in Developing Countries," NBER Working Papers 18371, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  3. Tilman Brück & Patricia Justino & Philip Verwimp & Andrew Tedesco, 2013. "Measuring Conflict Exposure in Micro-Level Surveys," HiCN Working Papers 153, Households in Conflict Network.
  4. Kalle Hirvonen, 2013. "Measuring catch-up growth in malnourished populations," Working Paper Series 5913, Department of Economics, University of Sussex.
  5. Ciani, Federico & Giannelli, Gianna Claudia, 2013. "Surviving the Genocide: The Impact of the Rwandan Genocide on Child Mortality," IZA Discussion Papers 7539, Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA).
  6. Sonia Bhalotra & Thomas Pogge, 2012. "Ethical and Economic Perspectives on Global Health Interventions Abstract: Interventions that improve childhood health directly improve the quality of life and, in addition, have multiplier effects, p," The Centre for Market and Public Organisation, Department of Economics, University of Bristol, UK 12/286, Department of Economics, University of Bristol, UK.
  7. Akresh, Richard & Lucchetti, Leonardo & Thirumurthy, Harsha, 2012. "Wars and child health: Evidence from the Eritrean–Ethiopian conflict," Journal of Development Economics, Elsevier, Elsevier, vol. 99(2), pages 330-340.
  8. Achyuta Adhvaryu & James Fenske, 2013. "War, resilience and political engagement in Africa," CSAE Working Paper Series 2013-08, Centre for the Study of African Economies, University of Oxford.
  9. Jorge M. Agüero & Muhammad Farhan Majid, 2014. "War and the Destruction of Human Capital," HiCN Working Papers 163, Households in Conflict Network.
  10. Lentz, Erin C. & Barrett, Christopher B., 2013. "The economics and nutritional impacts of food assistance policies and programs," Food Policy, Elsevier, Elsevier, vol. 42(C), pages 151-163.
  11. Achyuta Adhvaryu & James Fenske, 2014. "Conflict and the Formation of Political Beliefs in Africa," HiCN Working Papers 164, Households in Conflict Network.
  12. Jean-Pierre Tranchant & Patricia Justino & Cathérine Müller, 2014. "Political Violence, Drought and Child Malnutrition: Empirical Evidence from Andhra Pradesh, India," HiCN Working Papers 173, Households in Conflict Network.
  13. Mthuli Ncube & Basil Jones & Zorobabel Bicaba, 2014. "Working Paper 197 - Estimating the Economic Cost of Fragility in Africa," Working Paper Series, African Development Bank 2105, African Development Bank.
  14. De Walque Damien & Filmer Deon, 2012. "The Socioeconomic Distribution of Adult Mortality during Conflicts in Africa," Peace Economics, Peace Science, and Public Policy, De Gruyter, De Gruyter, vol. 18(3), pages 1-12, December.

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