Access to Primary Health Care and Health Outcomes: The Relationships between GP Characteristics and Mortality Rates
AbstractThis paper analyses the impact of economic conditions and access to primary health care on health outcomes in Norway. Total mortality rates, grouped into four causes of death, were used as proxies for health, and the number of general practitioners (GPs) at the municipality level was used as the proxy for access to primary health care. Dynamic panel data models that allow for time persistence in mortality rates, incorporate municipal fixed effects, and treat both the number and types of GPs in a district as endogenous were estimated using municipality data from 1986 to 2001. We reject the significant relationship between mortality and the number of GPs per capita found in most previous studies. However, there is a significant effect of the composition of GPs, where an increase in the number of fee-for-service GPs reduces mortality rates when compared with GPs employed directly by the municipality.
Download InfoIf you experience problems downloading a file, check if you have the proper application to view it first. In case of further problems read the IDEAS help page. Note that these files are not on the IDEAS site. Please be patient as the files may be large.
Bibliographic InfoPaper provided by University of Bergen, Department of Economics in its series Working Papers in Economics with number 16/05.
Length: 24 pages
Date of creation: 05 Jun 2005
Date of revision:
Contact details of provider:
Postal: Institutt for økonomi, Universitetet i Bergen, Postboks 7802, 5020 Bergen, Norway
Web page: http://www.uib.no/econ/en
More information through EDIRC
general practitioners (GPs); mortality; morbidity; simultaneity; endogeneity; municipalities; dynamic panel data models;
Other versions of this item:
- Aakvik, Arild & Holmas, Tor Helge, 2006. "Access to primary health care and health outcomes: The relationships between GP characteristics and mortality rates," Journal of Health Economics, Elsevier, vol. 25(6), pages 1139-1153, November.
- I11 - Health, Education, and Welfare - - Health - - - Analysis of Health Care Markets
- I12 - Health, Education, and Welfare - - Health - - - Health Production
- I18 - Health, Education, and Welfare - - Health - - - Government Policy; Regulation; Public Health
Please report citation or reference errors to , or , if you are the registered author of the cited work, log in to your RePEc Author Service profile, click on "citations" and make appropriate adjustments.:
- Cutler, D.M., 1992.
"The Incidence of Adverse Medical Outcome Under Prospective Payment,"
Harvard Institute of Economic Research Working Papers
1603, Harvard - Institute of Economic Research.
- Cutler, David M, 1995. "The Incidence of Adverse Medical Outcomes under Prospective Payment," Econometrica, Econometric Society, vol. 63(1), pages 29-50, January.
- David M. Cutler, 1993. "The Incidence of Adverse Medical Outcomes Under Prospective Payments," NBER Working Papers 4300, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
- Blundell, R. & Bond, S., 1995.
"Initial Conditions and Moment Restrictions in Dynamic Panel Data Models,"
104, Economics Group, Nuffield College, University of Oxford.
- Blundell, Richard & Bond, Stephen, 1998. "Initial conditions and moment restrictions in dynamic panel data models," Journal of Econometrics, Elsevier, vol. 87(1), pages 115-143, August.
- Richard Blundell & Steve Bond, 1995. "Initial conditions and moment restrictions in dynamic panel data models," IFS Working Papers W95/17, Institute for Fiscal Studies.
- R Blundell & Steven Bond, . "Initial conditions and moment restrictions in dynamic panel data model," Economics Papers W14&104., Economics Group, Nuffield College, University of Oxford.
- John Robst, 2001. "A note on the relationship between medical care resources and mortality," Applied Economics Letters, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 8(11), pages 737-739.
- M Arellano & O Bover, 1990.
"Another Look at the Instrumental Variable Estimation of Error-Components Models,"
CEP Discussion Papers
dp0007, Centre for Economic Performance, LSE.
- Arellano, Manuel & Bover, Olympia, 1995. "Another look at the instrumental variable estimation of error-components models," Journal of Econometrics, Elsevier, vol. 68(1), pages 29-51, July.
- Daniel P. Kessler & Mark B. McClellan, 2000. "Is Hospital Competition Socially Wasteful?," The Quarterly Journal of Economics, MIT Press, vol. 115(2), pages 577-615, May.
- John Geweke & Gautam Gowrisankaran & Robert J. Town, 2001.
"Bayesian Inference for Hospital Quality in a Selection Model,"
NBER Working Papers
8497, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
- John Geweke & Gautam Gowrisankaran & Robert J. Town, 2003. "Bayesian Inference for Hospital Quality in a Selection Model," Econometrica, Econometric Society, vol. 71(4), pages 1215-1238, 07.
- John Geweke & Gautam Gowrisankaran & Robert J. Town, 2002. "Bayesian inference for hospital quality in a selection model," Working Paper Series 2002-18, Federal Reserve Bank of San Francisco.
- Kemna, Harrie J. M. I., 1987. "Working conditions and the relationship between schooling and health," Journal of Health Economics, Elsevier, vol. 6(3), pages 189-210, September.
- Or, Zeynep & Wang, Jia & Jamison, Dean, 2005. "International differences in the impact of doctors on health: a multilevel analysis of OECD countries," Journal of Health Economics, Elsevier, vol. 24(3), pages 531-560, May.
- John Robst & Glenn Graham, 1997. "Access to health care and current health status: do physicians matter?," Applied Economics Letters, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 4(1), pages 45-48.
- Theodore Joyce & Naci Mocan, 1993.
"Unemployment and Infant Health: Time-Series Evidence from the State of Tennessee,"
Journal of Human Resources,
University of Wisconsin Press, vol. 28(1), pages 185-203.
- Theodore J. Joyce & Naci H. Mocan, 1993. "Unemployment and Infant Health: Times-Series Evidence from the State of Tennessee," NBER Working Papers 3694, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
- Paul van den Noord & Terje Hagen & Tor Iversen, 1998. "The Norwegian Health Care System," OECD Economics Department Working Papers 198, OECD Publishing.
- Ruhm, Christopher J., 2003. "Good times make you sick," Journal of Health Economics, Elsevier, vol. 22(4), pages 637-658, July.
- Christopher J. Ruhm, 1996.
"Are Recessions Good For Your Health?,"
NBER Working Papers
5570, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
- Grossman, Michael, 1972. "On the Concept of Health Capital and the Demand for Health," Journal of Political Economy, University of Chicago Press, vol. 80(2), pages 223-55, March-Apr.
- Gravelle, Hugh S. E., 1984. "Time series analysis of mortality and unemployment," Journal of Health Economics, Elsevier, vol. 3(3), pages 297-305, December.
- Carlsen, Fredrik & Grytten, Jostein, 2000. "Consumer satisfaction and supplier induced demand," Journal of Health Economics, Elsevier, vol. 19(5), pages 731-753, September.
- Forbes, John F. & McGregor, Alan, 1984. "Unemployment and mortality in post-war Scotland," Journal of Health Economics, Elsevier, vol. 3(3), pages 239-257, December.
- Hitiris, Theo & Posnett, John, 1992. "The determinants and effects of health expenditure in developed countries," Journal of Health Economics, Elsevier, vol. 11(2), pages 173-181, August.
- Arellano, Manuel & Bond, Stephen, 1991.
"Some Tests of Specification for Panel Data: Monte Carlo Evidence and an Application to Employment Equations,"
Review of Economic Studies,
Wiley Blackwell, vol. 58(2), pages 277-97, April.
- Tom Doan, . "RATS program to replicate Arellano-Bond 1991 dynamic panel," Statistical Software Components RTZ00169, Boston College Department of Economics.
- David Cutler & Ellen Meara, 2001. "Changes in the Age Distribution of Mortality Over the 20th Century," NBER Working Papers 8556, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
- Aakvik, Arild & Holmås, Tor Helge & Islam, M. Kamrul, 2011. "Does variation in GP practice matter for the length of sick leave? A multilevel analysis based on Norwegian GP—patient data," Working Papers in Economics 17/08, University of Bergen, Department of Economics.
- Granlund, David, 2007. "The effect of health care expenditure on sickness absence," UmeÃ¥ Economic Studies 701, Umeå University, Department of Economics, revised 13 Apr 2007.
- Sundmacher, Leonie & Busse, Reinhard, 2011. "The impact of physician supply on avoidable cancer deaths in Germany. A spatial analysis," Health Policy, Elsevier, vol. 103(1), pages 53-62.
- Mansour Farahani & S. V. Subramanian & David Canning, 2009. "Short and long-term relationship between physician density on infant mortality: a longitudinal econometric analysis," PGDA Working Papers 4909, Program on the Global Demography of Aging.
- Juho Aaltonen, 2007. "Determinants of Health Care Expenditures in Finnish Hospital Districts 1993-2005," Discussion Papers 429, Government Institute for Economic Research Finland (VATT).
- David Granlund, 2010. "The effect of health care expenditure on sickness absence," The European Journal of Health Economics, Springer, vol. 11(6), pages 555-568, December.
- Yusuke Kamiya, 2010. "Determinants of Health in Developing Countries:Cross-Country Evidence," OSIPP Discussion Paper 10E009, Osaka School of International Public Policy, Osaka University.
For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: (Kjell Erik Lommerud).
If references are entirely missing, you can add them using this form.