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L'effet pro-concurrentiel de l'intégration européenne: Une analyse de l'évolution des taux de marge dans les industries manufacturiéres francaises

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Author Info

  • Bellone, Flora

    (CNRS-GREDEG)

  • Musso, Patrick

    (CNRS-GREDEG)

  • Nesta, Lionel

    (Observatoire Français des Conjonctures Economiques)

  • Warzynski, Frédéric

    ()
    (Department of Economics, Aarhus School of Business)

Abstract

En situation de concurrence pure et parfaite, les décisions par les entreprises de quantité produites et d’utilisation des facteurs s’effectuent en égalisant le prix du marché de bien final avec le coût marginal. En situation de concurrence imparfaite, cette égalisation n’est plus respectée, les firmes ayant intérêt d’utiliser leur pouvoir de marché pour fixer un prix au-delà de leur coût marginal. Dans cet article, nous mesurons les taux de marge, définis comme l’écart en pourcentage entre le prix de vente et le coût marginal, à partir de données d’entreprises pour 14 industries manufacturières françaises de 1986 à 2004. Nous observons que le taux de marge moyen, sur l’ensemble de la période et sur l’ensemble des industries, est de 13,8%, ce qui est légèrement supérieur au Royaume-Uni. Nous trouvons que la mise en place du marché commun a conduit à une diminution de 4 à 5% des marges, alors que l’entrée en vigueur de l’Euro a constitué une opportunité pour les entreprises des secteurs de l’habillement et de l’automobile d’augmenter leurs marges d’environ 2%. Les taux de marge français sont contra-cycliques, et sont significativement déterminés par la configuration industrielle en termes d’ouverture au commerce internationale, de concentration industrielle et d’intensités capitalistique et technologique. Enfin, ces faits stylisés cachent une diversité sectorielle importante, qui révèle des pratiques de détermination des prix éminemment spécifiques aux secteurs.

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Bibliographic Info

Paper provided by University of Aarhus, Aarhus School of Business, Department of Economics in its series Working Papers with number 08-2.

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Length: 42 pages
Date of creation: 12 Nov 2007
Date of revision:
Handle: RePEc:hhs:aareco:2008_002

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Postal: The Aarhus School of Business, Prismet, Silkeborgvej 2, DK 8000 Aarhus C, Denmark
Phone: +45 89 486396
Fax: +45 8615 5175
Web page: http://www.asb.dk/departments/nat.aspx
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  1. Julio J. Rotemberg & Michael Woodford, 1991. "Markups and the Business Cycle," NBER Chapters, in: NBER Macroeconomics Annual 1991, Volume 6, pages 63-140 National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
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  13. Joaquim Oliveira Martins & Stefano Scarpetta, 1999. "The Levels and Cyclical Behaviour of Mark-ups Across Countries and Market Structures," OECD Economics Department Working Papers 213, OECD Publishing.
  14. Holger Görg & Frederic Warzynski, 2006. "The Dynamics of Price Cost Margins: Evidence from UK Manufacturing," Revue de l'OFCE, Presses de Sciences-Po, vol. 97(5), pages 303-318.
  15. Bresnahan, Timothy F., 1989. "Empirical studies of industries with market power," Handbook of Industrial Organization, in: R. Schmalensee & R. Willig (ed.), Handbook of Industrial Organization, edition 1, volume 2, chapter 17, pages 1011-1057 Elsevier.
  16. Harald Badinger, 2007. "Has the EU's Single Market Programme Fostered Competition? Testing for a Decrease in Mark-up Ratios in EU Industries," Oxford Bulletin of Economics and Statistics, Department of Economics, University of Oxford, vol. 69(4), pages 497-519, 08.
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