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La fuite des cerveaux incite-t-elle la scolarisation ?

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  • Matthieu Boussichas

    (CERDI - Centre d'études et de recherches sur le developpement international - CNRS : UMR6587 - Université d'Auvergne - Clermont-Ferrand I)

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    Abstract

    L'émigration de travailleurs issus des pays en développement vers ceux dits développés est relativement plus qualifiée que la moyenne mondiale des travailleurs. Ceci engendre pour certains de ces PED une perte directe en capital humain non-négligeable. Une vision "optimiste" (Stark(1997)) vise à imaginer une possible compensation de cette perte par le fait qu'il existerait un phénomène d'incitation à la scolarisation lorsque le taux d'émigration augmente. Nous construisons un modèle théorique de « Brain gain » afin de déterminer si le niveau actuel d'émigration qualifiée des pays en développement est trop élevé, et si l'effet d'incitation imaginé par Stark existe. Théoriquement, une augmentation de l'émigration des travailleurs éduqués peutêtre bénéfique si le taux d'émigration qualifiée reste relativement faible. Il existe un taux optimal qui maximise les bénéfices de ces départs mais les résultats montrent que ce type d'émigration est aujourd'hui trop élevé dans les pays en développement. Ces bénéfices proviennent essentiellement de l'effet du retour des migrants. L'analyse économétrique montre qu'une plus grande ouverture des frontières des pays développés aux travailleurs émigrants qualifiés a un effet nul sur les taux d'inscription dans le secondaire et le supérieur, et un effet négatif sur le niveau d'éducation global des pays en développement. Si nous admettons qu'une augmentation de l'émigration qualifiée peut être bénéfique sous certaines conditions, nous ne soutenons pas l'idée d'un éventuel « Brain gain à la Stark ».

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    Paper provided by HAL in its series Working Papers with number halshs-00556929.

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    Date of creation: 18 Jan 2011
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    Handle: RePEc:hal:wpaper:halshs-00556929

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    Related research

    Keywords: Brain drain; fuite des cerveaux; Brain gain; capital humain;

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    1. Stark, Oded & Helmenstein, Christian & Prskawetz, Alexia, 1997. "A brain gain with a brain drain," Economics Letters, Elsevier, vol. 55(2), pages 227-234, August.
    2. Binod Khadria, 2004. "Migration of Highly Skilled Indians: Case Studies of IT and the Health Professionals," OECD Science, Technology and Industry Working Papers 2004/6, OECD Publishing.
    3. Barro, Robert J & Lee, Jong-Wha, 2001. "International Data on Educational Attainment: Updates and Implications," Oxford Economic Papers, Oxford University Press, vol. 53(3), pages 541-63, July.
    4. Beine, Michel & Docquier, Frederic & Rapoport, Hillel, 2001. "Brain drain and economic growth: theory and evidence," Journal of Development Economics, Elsevier, vol. 64(1), pages 275-289, February.
    5. Michel Beine & Frédéric Docquier & Hillel Rapoport, 2002. "Brain Drain and LDCs' Growth: Winners and Losers," Working Papers 2002-08, Department of Economics, Bar-Ilan University.
    6. William Carrington & Enrica Detragiache, 1998. "How Big is the Brain Drain?," IMF Working Papers 98/102, International Monetary Fund.
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