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Gender differences in agricultural productivity

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  • Quisumbing, Agnes R.

Abstract

This paper reviews the econometric evidence on gender differences in agricultural productivity. It provides a methodological overview and a critique of (1) production function-based estimates of technical and labor productivity differences by gender, (2) individual (gender-disaggregated) labor supply and earnings functions and (3) studies of the determinants of technological adoption. The review finds that (1) in general, male and female farmers are equally efficient as farm managers. Women farmers' lower yields are attributable to lower levels of inputs and human capital than men. However, the use of coefficients estimated from these studies for simulation exercises may not be valid if endogenous input choice is not considered; (2) returns to schooling for both men and women are significant in dynamic agricultural settings where modern technologies have been introduced. Returns to an additional year of women's education range from 2 to 15 percent, which compares favorably with those of men; and (3) farmers with more education are more likely to adopt new technologies. Providing universal primary education also stimulates early adoption by female farmers, whom other women are more likely to imitate. Farmers with more land and farm tools are also more likely to adopt new technologies. To the extent that women farmers may have less education, less access to land, and own fewer tools, they may be less likely to adopt new technologies.

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Bibliographic Info

Paper provided by International Food Policy Research Institute (IFPRI) in its series FCND discussion papers with number 5.

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Date of creation: 1995
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Handle: RePEc:fpr:fcnddp:5

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Keywords: Education Gender issues. ; Educational equalization. ; Technological innovations. ; employment ; Labor Gender issues ; Agricultural technology ; Land use. ; Property rights ;

References

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  1. Sahn, David E. & Alderman, Harold, 1988. "The effects of human capital on wages, and the determinants of labor supply in a developing country," Journal of Development Economics, Elsevier, vol. 29(2), pages 157-183, September.
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  6. Marjorie B. McElroy, 1990. "The Empirical Content of Nash-Bargained Household Behavior," Journal of Human Resources, University of Wisconsin Press, vol. 25(4), pages 559-583.
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  8. Jacoby, Hanan G., 1991. "Productivity of men and women and the sexual division of labor in peasant agriculture of the Peruvian Sierra," Journal of Development Economics, Elsevier, vol. 37(1-2), pages 265-287, November.
  9. Oaxaca, Ronald, 1973. "Male-Female Wage Differentials in Urban Labor Markets," International Economic Review, Department of Economics, University of Pennsylvania and Osaka University Institute of Social and Economic Research Association, vol. 14(3), pages 693-709, October.
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  12. Khandker, Shahidur R., 1990. "Labor market participation, returns to education, and male - female wage differences in Peru," Policy Research Working Paper Series 461, The World Bank.
  13. Rosenzweig, Mark R, 1980. "Neoclassical Theory and the Optimizing Peasant: An Econometric Analysis of Market Family Labor Supply in a Developing Country," The Quarterly Journal of Economics, MIT Press, vol. 94(1), pages 31-55, February.
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  15. Feder, Gershon & Just, Richard E & Zilberman, David, 1985. "Adoption of Agricultural Innovations in Developing Countries: A Survey," Economic Development and Cultural Change, University of Chicago Press, vol. 33(2), pages 255-98, January.
  16. von Braun, Joachim & Puetz, Detlev & Webb, Patrick, 1989. "Irrigation technology and commercialization of rice in the Gambia: effects on income and nutrition," Research reports 75, International Food Policy Research Institute (IFPRI).
  17. Jamison, Dean T. & Moock, Peter R., 1984. "Farmer education and farm efficiency in Nepal: The role of schooling, extension services, and cognitive skills," World Development, Elsevier, vol. 12(1), pages 67-86, January.
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Citations

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Cited by:
  1. Caren A. Grown & Chandrika Bahadur & Jessie Handbury & Diane Elson, 2006. "The Financial Requirements of Achieving Gender Equality and Women's Empowerment," Economics Working Paper Archive wp_467, Levy Economics Institute.
  2. Behrman, Julia & Meinzen-Dick, Ruth & Quisumbing, Agnes, 2011. "The gender implications of large-scale land deals:," IFPRI discussion papers 1056, International Food Policy Research Institute (IFPRI).
  3. Assaad, Ragu & El-Hamidi, Fatma & Ahmed, Akhter U., 2000. "The determinants of employment status in Egypt," FCND briefs 88, International Food Policy Research Institute (IFPRI).
  4. Kumar, Neha & Quisumbing, Agnes R., 2011. "Gendered impacts of the 2007-08 food price crisis: Evidence using panel data from rural Ethiopia," IFPRI discussion papers 1093, International Food Policy Research Institute (IFPRI).
  5. Smale, Melinda & Mason, Nicole, 2012. "Demand for maize hybrids, seed subsidies, and seed decisionmakers in Zambia," HarvestPlus Working Papers 8, International Food Policy Research Institute (IFPRI).
  6. Alderman, Harold & Hoddinott, John & Haddad, Lawrence James & Udry, Christopher, 1995. "Gender differentials in farm productivity," FCND discussion papers 6, International Food Policy Research Institute (IFPRI).
  7. Hassan Ishaq Ibrahim & Napoleon Danbeki Saingbe & Zubairu Ajiya Abdulkadir, 2012. "Gender Participation in Economic Activities and Decision Making in Keffi Area of Nigeria," Asian Journal of Agriculture and rural Development, Asian Economic and Social Society, vol. 2(1), pages 10-16, March.
  8. Gutner, Tammi, 1999. "The political economy of Food subsidy reform in Egypt," FCND briefs 1, International Food Policy Research Institute (IFPRI).
  9. Howard, Patricia L. & Nabanoga, Gorettie, 2005. "Are there customary rights to plants?: an inquiry among the Baganda (Uganda), with special attention to gender," CAPRi working papers 44, International Food Policy Research Institute (IFPRI).

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