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The effect of market size structure on competition: the case of small business lending

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  • Allen N. Berger
  • Richard J. Rosen
  • Gregory F. Udell

Abstract

Banking industry consolidation has raised concern about the supply of small business credit since large banks generally invest lower proportions of their assets in small business loans. However, we find that the likelihood that a small business borrows from a bank of a given size is roughly proportional to the local market presence of banks of that size, although there are exceptions. Moreover, small business loan interest rates depend more on the size structure of the market than on the size of the bank providing the credit, with markets dominated by large banks generally charging lower prices.

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Bibliographic Info

Paper provided by Federal Reserve Bank of Chicago in its series Working Paper Series with number WP-01-10.

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Date of creation: 2001
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Handle: RePEc:fip:fedhwp:wp-01-10

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Keywords: Small business ; Bank size ; Bank loans ; Banking market;

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References

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  1. Allen N. Berger & Timothy H. Hannan, 1988. "The price-concentration relationship in banking," Finance and Economics Discussion Series 23, Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System (U.S.).
  2. Allen N. Berger & Anthony Saunders & Joseph M. Scalise & Gregory F. Udell, 1997. "The Effects of Bank Mergers and Acquisitions on Small Business Lending," New York University, Leonard N. Stern School Finance Department Working Paper Seires 97-1, New York University, Leonard N. Stern School of Business-.
  3. Peek, Joe & Rosengren, Eric S., 1998. "Bank consolidation and small business lending: It's not just bank size that matters," Journal of Banking & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 22(6-8), pages 799-819, August.
  4. Allen N. Berger & Leora F. Klapper & Gregory F. Udell, 2001. "The ability of banks to lend to informationally opaque small businesses," Finance and Economics Discussion Series 2001-34, Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System (U.S.).
  5. Degryse, Hans & Van Cayseele, Patrick, 2000. "Relationship Lending within a Bank-Based System: Evidence from European Small Business Data," Journal of Financial Intermediation, Elsevier, vol. 9(1), pages 90-109, January.
  6. Charlotte Ostergaard, 2000. "External Financing Costs and Banks Loan Supply: Does the Structure of the Bank Sector Matter?," FMG Discussion Papers dp357, Financial Markets Group.
  7. Blackwell, David W & Winters, Drew B, 1997. "Banking Relationships and the Effect of Monitoring on Loan Pricing," Journal of Financial Research, Southern Finance Association & Southwestern Finance Association, vol. 20(2), pages 275-89, Summer.
  8. Harhoff, Dietmar & Körting, Timm, 1998. "Lending Relationships in Germany: Empirical Results from Survey Data," CEPR Discussion Papers 1917, C.E.P.R. Discussion Papers.
  9. Oliver E. Williamson, 1967. "The Economics of Defense Contracting: Incentives and Performance," NBER Chapters, in: Issues in Defense Economics, pages 217-278 National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  10. Berger, A.N. & Goldberg, L.G. & White, L.J., 2001. "The Effects of Dynamic Change in Bank Competition on the Supply of Small Business Credit," New York University, Leonard N. Stern School Finance Department Working Paper Seires 01-07, New York University, Leonard N. Stern School of Business-.
  11. Mitchell Berlin & Loretta J. Mester, 1997. "Deposits and relationship lending," Working Papers 96-18, Federal Reserve Bank of Philadelphia.
  12. Petersen, Mitchell A & Rajan, Raghuram G, 1994. " The Benefits of Lending Relationships: Evidence from Small Business Data," Journal of Finance, American Finance Association, vol. 49(1), pages 3-37, March.
  13. Williamson, Oliver E, 1988. " Corporate Finance and Corporate Governance," Journal of Finance, American Finance Association, vol. 43(3), pages 567-91, July.
  14. Hannan, Timothy H & Berger, Allen N, 1991. "The Rigidity of Prices: Evidence from the Banking Industry," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 81(4), pages 938-45, September.
  15. Katerina Simons & Joanna Stavins, 1998. "Has antitrust policy in banking become obsolete?," New England Economic Review, Federal Reserve Bank of Boston, issue Mar, pages 13-26.
  16. Jalal D. Akhavein & Allen N. Berger & David B. Humphrey, 1996. "The Effects of Megamergers on Efficiency and Prices: Evidence from a Bank Profit Function," Center for Financial Institutions Working Papers 96-03, Wharton School Center for Financial Institutions, University of Pennsylvania.
  17. Berger, Allen N & Udell, Gregory F, 1995. "Relationship Lending and Lines of Credit in Small Firm Finance," The Journal of Business, University of Chicago Press, vol. 68(3), pages 351-81, July.
  18. Thakor, Anjan V., 2000. "Relationship Banking," Journal of Financial Intermediation, Elsevier, vol. 9(1), pages 3-5, January.
  19. David Neumark & Steven A. Sharpe, 1989. "Market structure and the nature of price rigidity: evidence from the market for consumer deposits," Finance and Economics Discussion Series 52, Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System (U.S.).
  20. Ferri, Giovanni & Messori, Marcello, 2000. "Bank-firm relationships and allocative efficiency in Northeastern and Central Italy and in the South," Journal of Banking & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 24(6), pages 1067-1095, June.
  21. Prager, Robin A & Hannan, Timothy H, 1998. "Do Substantial Horizontal Mergers Generate Significant Price Effects? Evidence from the Banking Industry," Journal of Industrial Economics, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 46(4), pages 433-52, December.
  22. Angelini, P. & Di Salvo, R. & Ferri, G., 1998. "Availability and cost of credit for small businesses: Customer relationships and credit cooperatives," Journal of Banking & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 22(6-8), pages 925-954, August.
  23. Hannan, Timothy H., 1991. "Bank commercial loan markets and the role of market structure: evidence from surveys of commercial lending," Journal of Banking & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 15(1), pages 133-149, February.
  24. Jayaratne, Jith & Wolken, John, 1999. "How important are small banks to small business lending?: New evidence from a survey of small firms," Journal of Banking & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 23(2-4), pages 427-458, February.
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Citations

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Cited by:
  1. Shen, Yan & Shen, Minggao & Xu, Zhong & Bai, Ying, 2009. "Bank Size and Small- and Medium-sized Enterprise (SME) Lending: Evidence from China," World Development, Elsevier, vol. 37(4), pages 800-811, April.
  2. Janet Currie & Firouz Gahvari, 2007. "Transfers in Cash and In Kind: Theory Meets the Data," NBER Working Papers 13557, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  3. Degryse, H.A. & Ongena, S., 2003. "Distance, Lending Relationships, and Competition," Discussion Paper 2003-123, Tilburg University, Center for Economic Research.
  4. Carter, David A. & McNulty, James E., 2005. "Deregulation, technological change, and the business-lending performance of large and small banks," Journal of Banking & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 29(5), pages 1113-1130, May.
  5. Berger, Allen N., 2003. "The efficiency effects of a single market for financial services in Europe," European Journal of Operational Research, Elsevier, vol. 150(3), pages 466-481, November.
  6. Allen N. Berger & Nathan H. Miller & Mitchell A. Petersen & Raghuran G. Rajan & Jeremy C. Stein, 2002. "Does function follow organizational form? evidence from the lending practices of large and small banks," Proceedings 815, Federal Reserve Bank of Chicago.
  7. Ergungor, O. Emre, 2005. "The profitability of bank-borrower relationships," Journal of Financial Intermediation, Elsevier, vol. 14(4), pages 485-512, October.
  8. William Keeton, 2003. "The role of community banks in the U.S. economy," Economic Review, Federal Reserve Bank of Kansas City, issue Q II, pages 15-43.
  9. Erel, Isil, 2007. "The Effect of Bank Mergers on Loan Prices: Evidence from the U.S," Working Paper Series 2006-19, Ohio State University, Charles A. Dice Center for Research in Financial Economics.
  10. Jonathan Scott, 2004. "Small Business and the Value of Community Financial Institutions," Journal of Financial Services Research, Springer, vol. 25(2), pages 207-230, April.
  11. Douglas D. Evanoff & Evren Ors, 2002. "Local market consolidation and bank productive efficiency," Working Paper Series WP-02-25, Federal Reserve Bank of Chicago.
  12. David Carter & James McNulty & James Verbrugge, 2004. "Do Small Banks have an Advantage in Lending? An Examination of Risk-Adjusted Yields on Business Loans at Large and Small Banks," Journal of Financial Services Research, Springer, vol. 25(2), pages 233-252, April.

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