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Local market consolidation and bank productive efficiency

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  • Douglas D. Evanoff
  • Evren Ors

Abstract

The recent banking literature has evaluated the impact of mergers on the efficiency of the merging parties [e.g., Rhoades (1993), Shaffer (1993), Fixler and Zieschang (1993)]. Similarly, there has been analysis of the impact of eliminating bank entry restrictions on the average performance of banks [Jayaratne and Strahan (1998)]. The evidence suggests that acquiring banks are typically more efficient than are acquired banks, resulting in the potential for the new combined organization to be more efficient and, therefore, for the merger to be welfare enhancing. The evidence also suggests, however, that these potential gains are often not realized. This has led some to question the benefits resulting from the recent increase in bank merger activity. We take a somewhat more comprehensive and micro-oriented approach and evaluate the impact of actual and potential competition resulting from market-entry mergers and reductions in entry barriers on bank efficiency. In particular, in addition to the efficiency gains realized by the parties involved in a bank merger, economic theory argues that additional efficiency gains should result from the impact of the merger on the degree of local market competition. We therefore examine the impact of increased competition resulting from mergers and acquisitions on the productive efficiency of incumbent banks. Our findings are consistent with economic theory: as competition increases as a result of entry or the creation of a more viable local competitor, the incumbent banks respond by increasing their level of cost efficiency. We find this efficiency increase to be in addition to any efficiency gains resulting from increases in potential competition occurring with the initial elimination of certain entry barriers. Thus, consistent with economic theory, new entrants and reductions in entry barriers lead incumbent firms to increase their productive efficiency to enable them to be viable in the more competitive environment. Studies evaluating the impact of bank mergers on the efficiency of the combining parties alone may be overlooking the most significant welfare enhancing aspect of merger activity. We do not find evidence of profit efficiency gains. In fact, the mergers are associated with decreases in profit efficiency; perhaps indicating that revenues may also be competed away from incumbents as a result of mergers.

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Bibliographic Info

Paper provided by Federal Reserve Bank of Chicago in its series Working Paper Series with number WP-02-25.

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Date of creation: 2002
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Handle: RePEc:fip:fedhwp:wp-02-25

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Keywords: Bank mergers;

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References

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Citations

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Cited by:
  1. Pietro ALESSANDRINI & Luca PAPI & Alberto ZAZZARO, 2002. "Banche, territorio e sviluppo," Working Papers 175, Universita' Politecnica delle Marche (I), Dipartimento di Scienze Economiche e Sociali.
  2. Pietro Alessandrini & Luca Papi & Alberto Zazzaro, 2003. "Banks, regions and development," Banca Nazionale del Lavoro Quarterly Review, Banca Nazionale del Lavoro, vol. 56(224), pages 23-55.
  3. William Lang & Choon-Geol Moon & Loretta Mester & Joseph Hughes & Michael Pagano, 2001. "Do Bankers Sacrifice Value to Build Empires? Managerial Incentives, Industry Consolidation, and Financial Performance," Departmental Working Papers 200117, Rutgers University, Department of Economics.
  4. Mark Carlson & Kris James Mitchener, 2007. "Branch Banking as a Device for Discipline: Competition and Bank Survivorship During the Great Depression," NBER Working Papers 12938, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  5. Meriem Haouat & Diego Nicolas Moccero & Ramiro Sosa Navarro, 2010. "Foreign Banks and Credit Volatility: The Case of Latin American Countries," Working Paper Series wp2010-52, World Institute for Development Economic Research (UNU-WIDER).
  6. Robert DeYoung & William C. Hunter & Gregory F. Udell, 2003. "The past, present, and probable future for community banks," Working Paper Series WP-03-14, Federal Reserve Bank of Chicago.
  7. William Emmons & R. Gilbert & Timothy Yeager, 2004. "Reducing the Risk at Small Community Banks: Is it Size or Geographic Diversification that Matters?," Journal of Financial Services Research, Springer, vol. 25(2), pages 259-281, April.
  8. Robert DeYoung, 2002. "New Bank Start-Ups: Entrepreneurs Funding Other Entrepreneurs," Journal of Entrepreneurial Finance, Pepperdine University, Graziadio School of Business and Management, vol. 7(3), pages 61-76, Fall.
  9. Robert DeYoung & William C. Hunter, 2001. "Deregulation, the Internet, and the competitive viability of large banks and community banks," Working Paper Series WP-01-11, Federal Reserve Bank of Chicago.
  10. Joseph P. Hughes & Loretta J. Mester, 2012. "A Primer on Market Discipline and Governance of Financial Institutions for Those in a State of Shocked Disbelief," Departmental Working Papers 201204, Rutgers University, Department of Economics.
  11. Carol Ann Northcott, 2004. "Competition in Banking: A Review of the Literature," Working Papers 04-24, Bank of Canada.
  12. César Orosco, 2007. "Random utility models of demand for the U.S. commercial banking industry," Revista de Analisis Economico – Economic Analysis Review, Ilades-Georgetown University, Universidad Alberto Hurtado/School of Economics and Bussines, vol. 22(2), pages 47-74, December.

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