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Dollar funding and the lending behavior of global banks

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  • Victoria Ivashina
  • David S. Scharfstein
  • Jeremy C. Stein

Abstract

A large share of dollar-denominated lending is done by non-U.S. banks, particularly European banks. We present a model in which such banks cut dollar lending more than euro lending in response to a shock to their credit quality. Because these banks rely on wholesale dollar funding, while raising more of their euro funding through insured retail deposits, the shock leads to a greater withdrawal of dollar funding. Banks can borrow in euros and swap into dollars to make up for the dollar shortfall, but this may lead to violations of covered interest parity (CIP) when there is limited capital to take the other side of the swap trade. In this case, synthetic dollar borrowing becomes expensive, which causes cuts in dollar lending. We test the model in the context of the Eurozone sovereign crisis, which escalated in the second half of 2011 and resulted in U.S. money-market funds sharply reducing their funding to European banks. Coincident with the contraction in dollar funding, there were significant violations of euro-dollar CIP. Moreover, dollar lending by Eurozone banks fell relative to their euro lending in both the U.S. and Europe; this was not the case for U.S. global banks. Finally, European banks that were more reliant on money funds experienced bigger declines in dollar lending.

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Bibliographic Info

Paper provided by Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System (U.S.) in its series Finance and Economics Discussion Series with number 2012-74.

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Date of creation: 2012
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Handle: RePEc:fip:fedgfe:2012-74

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Cited by:
  1. Tümer Kapan & Camelia Minoiu, 2013. "Balance Sheet Strength and Bank Lending During the Global Financial Crisis," IMF Working Papers 13/102, International Monetary Fund.
  2. Philip Lane, 2013. "International Capital Flows and Domestic Financial Conditions: Lessons for Emerging Asia," The Institute for International Integration Studies Discussion Paper Series iiisdp438, IIIS.
  3. Philip Lane & Peter McQuade, 2013. "Domestic Credit Growth and International Capital Flows," The Institute for International Integration Studies Discussion Paper Series iiisdp428, IIIS.
  4. Viral V. Acharya & Sascha Steffen, 2013. "The “Greatest” Carry Trade Ever? Understanding Eurozone Bank Risks," NBER Working Papers 19039, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  5. Viral V. Acharya & Gara Afonso & Anna Kovner, 2013. "How do global banks scramble for liquidity? Evidence from the asset-backed commercial paper freeze of 2007," Staff Reports 623, Federal Reserve Bank of New York.

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