Giving credit where credit is due? the Community Reinvestment Act and mortgage lending in lower-income neighborhoods
AbstractI identify and quantify the mortgage supply effect of the Community Reinvestment Act (CRA), a law mandating that banks help provide credit in lower-income neighborhoods, by exploiting a discontinuity in the selection rule determining which census tracts CRA targets. Using a comprehensive source of micro data on MSA mortgage applications, I find that CRA affects bank lending primarily in large MSA's, where banks are most scrutinized. The analysis indicates that CRA's effect on bank originations was about 4% between 1994 and 1996, and expanded to 8% in 1997-2002, consistent with the timing of a reform strengthening CRA. I provide some evidence that marginal loans go to atypical, potentially higher-risk borrowers. The results also indicate net "crowd-in": lending to targeted tracts by unregulated institutions rises in post-reform years, in particular to those areas that have had relatively low home purchase volume in the recent past, consistent with a model of information externalities in credit markets. Finally, using changes in tract eligibility status following the release of Census 2000 data as an additional source of variation, I find that CRA increased bank lending to newly targeted tracts in large MSA's by 4-5% in 2004 and 2005.
Download InfoIf you experience problems downloading a file, check if you have the proper application to view it first. In case of further problems read the IDEAS help page. Note that these files are not on the IDEAS site. Please be patient as the files may be large.
Bibliographic InfoPaper provided by Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System (U.S.) in its series Finance and Economics Discussion Series with number 2008-61.
Date of creation: 2008
Date of revision:
This paper has been announced in the following NEP Reports:
Please report citation or reference errors to , or , if you are the registered author of the cited work, log in to your RePEc Author Service profile, click on "citations" and make appropriate adjustments.:
- repec:fip:fedgsq:y:2007:i:mar30 is not listed on IDEAS
- Lang William W. & Nakamura Leonard I., 1993. "A Model of Redlining," Journal of Urban Economics, Elsevier, vol. 33(2), pages 223-234, March.
- Carow, Kenneth A. & Kane, Edward J., 2002.
"Event-study evidence of the value of relaxing long-standing regulatory restraints on banks, 1970-2000,"
The Quarterly Review of Economics and Finance,
Elsevier, vol. 42(3), pages 439-463.
- Kenneth A. Carow & Edward J. Kane, 2001. "Event-Study Evidence of the Value of Relaxing Longstanding Regulatory Restraints on Banks, 1970-2000," NBER Working Papers 8594, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
- Drew Dahl & Douglas D. Evanoff & Michael F. Spivey, 2009. "Community Reinvestment Act Enforcement and Targeted Mortgage Lending," Working Papers 200806, Utah State University, Department of Economics and Finance.
- LaCour-Little, Michael & Malpezzi, Stephen, 2003. "Appraisal Quality and Residential Mortgage Default: Evidence from Alaska," The Journal of Real Estate Finance and Economics, Springer, vol. 27(2), pages 211-33, September.
- Schill, Michael H & Wachter, Susan M, 1994.
"Borrower and Neighborhood Racial and Income Characteristics and Financial Institution Mortgage Application Screening,"
The Journal of Real Estate Finance and Economics,
Springer, vol. 9(3), pages 223-39, November.
- Michael H. Schill & Susan M. Wachter, 1994. "Borrower and neighborhood racial and income characteristics and financial institution mortgage application screening," Proceedings, Federal Reserve Bank of Philadelphia, pages 223-243.
- Guido Imbens & Thomas Lemieux, 2007.
"Regression Discontinuity Designs: A Guide to Practice,"
NBER Working Papers
13039, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
- Imbens, Guido W. & Lemieux, Thomas, 2008. "Regression discontinuity designs: A guide to practice," Journal of Econometrics, Elsevier, vol. 142(2), pages 615-635, February.
- Guido Imbens & Thomas Lemieux, 2007. "Regression Discontinuity Designs: A Guide to Practice," NBER Technical Working Papers 0337, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
- Dennis R. Capozza & Ryan D. Israelsen & Thomas A. Thomson, 2005. "Appraisal, Agency and Atypicality: Evidence from Manufactured Homes," Real Estate Economics, American Real Estate and Urban Economics Association, vol. 33(3), pages 509-537, 09.
- Raphael Bostic & Hamid Mehran & Anna Paulson & Marc Saidenberg, 2002.
"Regulatory incentives and consolidation: the case of commercial bank mergers and the Community Reinvestment Act,"
Working Paper Series
WP-02-06, Federal Reserve Bank of Chicago.
- Bostic Raphael & Paulson Anna L & Mehran Hamid & Saidenberg Marc, 2005. "Regulatory Incentives and Consolidation: The Case of Commercial Bank Mergers and the Community Reinvestment Act," The B.E. Journal of Economic Analysis & Policy, De Gruyter, vol. 5(1), pages 1-27, April.
- Mark J. Garmaise & Tobias J. Moskowitz, 2006. "Bank Mergers and Crime: The Real and Social Effects of Credit Market Competition," Journal of Finance, American Finance Association, vol. 61(2), pages 495-538, 04.
- Millon Cornett, Marcia & De, Sankar, 1991. "Medium of Payment in Corporate Acquisitions: Evidence from Interstate Bank Mergers," Journal of Money, Credit and Banking, Blackwell Publishing, vol. 23(4), pages 767-76, November.
- Robert B. Avery & Raphael W. Bostic & Glenn B. Canner, 2000. "CRA special lending programs," Federal Reserve Bulletin, Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System (U.S.), issue Nov, pages 711-731.
- Douglas D. Evanoff & Lewis M. Segal, 1996. "CRA and fair lending regulations: resulting trends in mortgage lending," Economic Perspectives, Federal Reserve Bank of Chicago, issue Nov, pages 19-46.
- Robert B. Avery & Paul S. Calem & Glenn B. Canner, 2003. "The effects of the Community Reinvestment Act on local communities," Proceedings 878, Federal Reserve Bank of Chicago.
- Paul S. Calem & Susan Wachter, 1998.
"Community Reinvestment and Credit Risk: Evidence from an Affordable Home Loan Program,"
Zell/Lurie Center Working Papers
306, Wharton School Samuel Zell and Robert Lurie Real Estate Center, University of Pennsylvania.
- Paul S. Calem & Susan M. Wachter, 1999. "Community Reinvestment and Credit Risk: Evidence from an Affordable-Home-Loan Program," Real Estate Economics, American Real Estate and Urban Economics Association, vol. 27(1), pages 105-134.
- James T. Campen & Thomas M. Callahan, 2001. "Boston's soft second program: reaching low-income and minority home buyers in a changing financial-services environment," Proceedings 796, Federal Reserve Bank of Chicago.
- Joseph Nichols & Anthony Pennington-Cross & Anthony Yezer, 2004. "Borrower Self-Selection, Underwriting Costs, and Subprime Mortgage Credit Supply," The Journal of Real Estate Finance and Economics, Springer, vol. 30(2), pages 197-219, November.
- Harrison, David M., 2001. "The Importance of Lender Heterogeneity in Mortgage Lending," Journal of Urban Economics, Elsevier, vol. 49(2), pages 285-309, March.
- Caplin, Andrew & Leahy, John, 1998.
"Miracle on Sixth Avenue: Information Externalities and Search,"
Royal Economic Society, vol. 108(446), pages 60-74, January.
- Caplin, A. & Leahy, J., 1993. "Miracle on Sixth Avenue: Information Externalities and Search," Harvard Institute of Economic Research Working Papers 1665, Harvard - Institute of Economic Research.
- Caplin, A. & Leahy, J., 1993. "Miracle on Sixth Avenue: Information Externalities and Search," Discussion Papers 1993_20, Columbia University, Department of Economics.
- Jeffrey M. Lacker, 1995. "Neighborhoods and banking," Economic Quarterly, Federal Reserve Bank of Richmond, issue Spr, pages 13-38.
- Ben S. Bernanke, 2007. "The Community Reinvestment Act: its evolution and new challenges," Speech 272, Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System (U.S.).
- Robert B. Avery & Kenneth P. Brevoort & Glenn B. Canner, 2007. "Opportunities and Issues in Using HMDA Data," Journal of Real Estate Research, American Real Estate Society, vol. 29(4), pages 351-380.
- Ling, David C. & Wachter, Susan M., 1998. "Information Externalities and Home Mortgage Underwriting," Journal of Urban Economics, Elsevier, vol. 44(3), pages 317-332, November.
- Neil Bhutta, 2009. "Regression discontinuity estimates of the effects of the GSE act of 1992," Finance and Economics Discussion Series 2009-03, Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System (U.S.).
- Tarr, David G., 2010. "The political, regulatory and market failures that caused the US financial crisis," Policy Research Working Paper Series 5324, The World Bank.
For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: (Kris Vajs).
If references are entirely missing, you can add them using this form.