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Bank Mergers and Crime: The Real and Social Effects of Credit Market Competition

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  • MARK J. GARMAISE
  • TOBIAS J. MOSKOWITZ
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    Abstract

    Using a unique sample of commercial loans and mergers between large banks, we provide micro-level (within-county) evidence linking credit conditions to economic development and find a spillover effect on crime. Neighborhoods that experience more bank mergers are subject to higher interest rates, diminished local construction, lower prices, an influx of poorer households, and higher property crime in subsequent years. The elasticity of property crime with respect to merger-induced banking concentration is 0.18. We show that these results are not likely due to reverse causation, and confirm the central findings using state branching deregulation to instrument for bank competition. Copyright 2006 by The American Finance Association.

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    Bibliographic Info

    Article provided by American Finance Association in its journal The Journal of Finance.

    Volume (Year): 61 (2006)
    Issue (Month): 2 (04)
    Pages: 495-538

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    Handle: RePEc:bla:jfinan:v:61:y:2006:i:2:p:495-538

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    Cited by:
    1. Neil Bhutta, 2008. "Giving credit where credit is due? the Community Reinvestment Act and mortgage lending in lower-income neighborhoods," Finance and Economics Discussion Series 2008-61, Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System (U.S.).
    2. Huang, Rocco, 2007. "Evaluating the real effect of bank branching deregulation: comparing contiguous counties across U.S. state borders," Working Paper Series 0788, European Central Bank.
    3. Robert DeYoung & Douglas Evanoff & Philip Molyneux, 2009. "Mergers and Acquisitions of Financial Institutions: A Review of the Post-2000 Literature," Journal of Financial Services Research, Springer, vol. 36(2), pages 87-110, December.
    4. Morse, Adair, 2011. "Payday lenders: Heroes or villains?," Journal of Financial Economics, Elsevier, vol. 102(1), pages 28-44, October.
    5. Pope, Devin G. & Pope, Jaren C., 2012. "Crime and property values: Evidence from the 1990s crime drop," Regional Science and Urban Economics, Elsevier, vol. 42(1-2), pages 177-188.
    6. Evren Damar, H., 2007. "Does post-crisis restructuring decrease the availability of banking services? The case of Turkey," Journal of Banking & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 31(9), pages 2886-2905, September.
    7. Francis, Bill & Hasan, Iftekhar & Wang, Haizhi, 2008. "Bank consolidation and new business formation," Journal of Banking & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 32(8), pages 1598-1612, August.
    8. Oliver Budzinski & Jürgen-Peter Kretschmer, 2009. "Horizontal Mergers, Involuntary Unemployment, and Welfare," MAGKS Papers on Economics 200907, Philipps-Universität Marburg, Faculty of Business Administration and Economics, Department of Economics (Volkswirtschaftliche Abteilung).
    9. Francis, Bill & Hasan, Iftekhar & Wang, Haizhi, 2014. "Banking deregulation, consolidation, and corporate cash holdings: U.S. evidence," Journal of Banking & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 41(C), pages 45-56.
    10. Chava, Sudheer & Purnanandam, Amiyatosh, 2011. "The effect of banking crisis on bank-dependent borrowers," Journal of Financial Economics, Elsevier, vol. 99(1), pages 116-135, January.
    11. Chatterji, Aaron K. & Seamans, Robert C., 2012. "Entrepreneurial finance, credit cards, and race," Journal of Financial Economics, Elsevier, vol. 106(1), pages 182-195.
    12. Stephen L. Ross, 2009. "Social Interactions within Cities: Neighborhood Environments and Peer Relationships," Working papers 2009-31, University of Connecticut, Department of Economics.
    13. Erel, Isil, 2007. "The Effect of Bank Mergers on Loan Prices: Evidence from the U.S," Working Paper Series 2006-19, Ohio State University, Charles A. Dice Center for Research in Financial Economics.
    14. Charles Calomiris & Thanavut Pornrojnangkool, 2009. "Relationship Banking and the Pricing of Financial Services," Journal of Financial Services Research, Springer, vol. 35(3), pages 189-224, June.
    15. Liu, Yong-Chin & Chen, Hsiang-Ju, 2012. "Economic conditions, lending competition, and evaluation effect of credit line announcements on borrowers," Pacific-Basin Finance Journal, Elsevier, vol. 20(3), pages 438-458.
    16. C. Fritz Foley, 2008. "Welfare Payments and Crime," NBER Working Papers 14074, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
    17. Becker, Bo, 2007. "Geographical segmentation of US capital markets," Journal of Financial Economics, Elsevier, vol. 85(1), pages 151-178, July.
    18. Chang, Philip C. & Jia, Chunxin & Wang, Zhicheng, 2010. "Bank fund reallocation and economic growth: Evidence from China," Journal of Banking & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 34(11), pages 2753-2766, November.
    19. Neil Bhutta, 2012. "GSE Activity and Mortgage Supply in Lower-Income and Minority Neighborhoods: The Effect of the Affordable Housing Goals," The Journal of Real Estate Finance and Economics, Springer, vol. 45(1), pages 238-261, June.
    20. Lili Xie, 2007. "Bank Consolidation and Loan Pricing," Working Papers 200706, Ball State University, Department of Economics, revised Nov 2007.

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