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Does Venture Capital Investment Really Require Spatial Proximity? An Empirical Investigation

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  • Michael Fritsch
  • Dirk Schilder

Abstract

We examine the role of spatial proximity for Venture Capital (VC) investments in Germany. The main database is a survey of 85 personal interviews with representatives of different types of financial institutions. The analysis shows that spatial proximity is far less important for VC investments than is often believed. For example, the results indicate that syndication is partly used as an alternative to spatial proximity. Telecommunication does not work as a substitute for face-to-face contact. On the whole, regional proximity is not a dominant factor in VC partnerships. Therefore, the absence of VC firms in a region does not appear to cause a severe regional equity gap.

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Bibliographic Info

Paper provided by Max Planck Institute of Economics, Entrepreneurship, Growth and Public Policy Group in its series Papers on Entrepreneurship, Growth and Public Policy with number 2006-14.

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Length: 33 pages
Date of creation: May 2006
Date of revision:
Handle: RePEc:esi:egpdis:2006-14

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Keywords: Venture Capital; spatial proximity; start-up financing;

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References

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  1. Mitchell A. Petersen & Raghuram G. Rajan, 2000. "Does Distance Still Matter? The Information Revolution in Small Business Lending," NBER Working Papers 7685, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  2. De Clercq, Dirk & Sapienza, Harry J., 2006. "Effects of relational capital and commitment on venture capitalists' perception of portfolio company performance," Journal of Business Venturing, Elsevier, vol. 21(3), pages 326-347, May.
  3. Peter Sunley & Britta Klagge & Christian Berndt & Ron Martin, 2005. "Venture capital programmes in the UK and Germany: In what sense regional policies?," Regional Studies, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 39(2), pages 255-273.
  4. Lockett, Andy & Wright, Mike, 2001. "The syndication of venture capital investments," Omega, Elsevier, vol. 29(5), pages 375-390, October.
  5. Lerner, Josh, 1995. " Venture Capitalists and the Oversight of Private Firms," Journal of Finance, American Finance Association, vol. 50(1), pages 301-18, March.
  6. Schäfer, Dorothea & Schilder, Dirk, 2006. "Informed capital in a hostile environment: the case of relational investors in Germany," Freiberg Working Papers 2006,03, TU Bergakademie Freiberg, Faculty of Economics and Business Administration.
  7. Thomas Hellmann & Manju Puri, 2002. "Venture Capital and the Professionalization of Start-Up Firms: Empirical Evidence," Journal of Finance, American Finance Association, vol. 57(1), pages 169-197, 02.
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  9. James A. Brander & Raphael Amit & Werner Antweiler, 2002. "Venture-Capital Syndication: Improved Venture Selection vs. The Value-Added Hypothesis," Journal of Economics & Management Strategy, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 11(3), pages 423-452, 09.
  10. Gupta, Anil K. & Sapienza, Harry J., 1992. "Determinants of venture capital firms' preferences regarding the industry diversity and geographic scope of their investments," Journal of Business Venturing, Elsevier, vol. 7(5), pages 347-362, September.
  11. Sapienza, Harry J. & Manigart, Sophie & Vermeir, Wim, 1996. "Venture capitalist governance and value added in four countries," Journal of Business Venturing, Elsevier, vol. 11(6), pages 439-469, November.
  12. Walter Powell & Kenneth Koput & James Bowie & Laurel Smith-Doerr, 2002. "The Spatial Clustering of Science and Capital: Accounting for Biotech Firm-Venture Capital Relationships," Regional Studies, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 36(3), pages 291-305.
  13. Slavtchev, Viktor & Fritsch, Michael, 2005. "The Role of Regional Knowledge Sources for Innovation: An Empirical Assessment," Freiberg Working Papers 2005,15, TU Bergakademie Freiberg, Faculty of Economics and Business Administration.
  14. Paul Gompers & Josh Lerner, 2001. "The Venture Capital Revolution," Journal of Economic Perspectives, American Economic Association, vol. 15(2), pages 145-168, Spring.
  15. Tykvová, Tereza, 2004. "Who Are the True Venture Capitalists in Germany?," ZEW Discussion Papers 04-16, ZEW - Zentrum für Europäische Wirtschaftsforschung / Center for European Economic Research.
  16. Sapienza, Harry J., 1992. "When do venture capitalists add value?," Journal of Business Venturing, Elsevier, vol. 7(1), pages 9-27, January.
  17. Michael Fritsch & Viktor Slavtchev, 2005. "The Role of Regional Knowledge for Innovation," ERSA conference papers ersa05p623, European Regional Science Association.
  18. Rebecca Harding, 2000. "Venture capital and regional development: Towards a venture capital 'system'," Venture Capital, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 2(4), pages 287-311, October.
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  20. Joshua Lerner, 1994. "The Syndication of Venture Capital Investments," Financial Management, Financial Management Association, vol. 23(3), Fall.
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Citations

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Cited by:
  1. Alexandra Schröter, 2008. "Perspektiven der Innovationspolitik in den neuen Bundesländern," ifo Dresden berichtet, Ifo Institute for Economic Research at the University of Munich, vol. 15(02), pages 40-52, 04.
  2. Fritsch, Michael & Schilder, Dirk, 2006. "Is venture capital a regional business? The role of syndication," Freiberg Working Papers 2006,09, TU Bergakademie Freiberg, Faculty of Economics and Business Administration.
  3. Schilder, Dirk, 2007. "Venture capital syndicate networks: the determinants of interconnectedness," Freiberg Working Papers 2007,03, TU Bergakademie Freiberg, Faculty of Economics and Business Administration.
  4. Dorothea Schaefer & Dirk Schilder, 2007. "Smart capital in German start-ups - an empirical analysis," Jena Economic Research Papers 2007-015, Friedrich-Schiller-University Jena, Max-Planck-Institute of Economics.
  5. José Ernesto Amorós & Miguel Atienza & Gianni Romaní, 2008. "Formal and Informal Equity Funding in Chile," Estudios de Economia, University of Chile, Department of Economics, vol. 35(2 Year 20), pages 179-194, December.
  6. Schilder, Dirk, 2006. "Public venture capital in Germany: task force or forced task?," Freiberg Working Papers 2006,12, TU Bergakademie Freiberg, Faculty of Economics and Business Administration.
  7. Katja Bringmann & Ann Verhetsel & Thomas Vanoutrive & Jo Reynaerts, 2013. "The impact of venture capital linkages on start-ups? cluster embeddedness," ERSA conference papers ersa13p298, European Regional Science Association.
  8. Nils Ellwanger & Ron Boschma, 2013. "Who acquires whom? The role of geographical proximity and industrial relatedness in Dutch domestic M&As between 2002 and 2008," Papers in Evolutionary Economic Geography (PEEG) 1319, Utrecht University, Section of Economic Geography, revised Oct 2013.
  9. Achleitner, Ann-Kristin & Braun, Reiner & Bender, Marko & Geidner, Annabell, 2008. "Community development venture capital: concept and status quo in Germany," CEFS Working Paper Series 2008-03, Center for Entrepreneurial and Financial Studies (CEFS), Technische Universität München.
  10. Lutz, Eva & Bender, Marko & Achleitner, Ann-Kristin & Kaserer, Christoph, 2013. "Importance of spatial proximity between venture capital investors and investees in Germany," Journal of Business Research, Elsevier, vol. 66(11), pages 2346-2354.
  11. Michael Fritsch & Dirk Schilder, 2012. "The Regional Supply of Venture Capital: Can Syndication Overcome Bottlenecks?," Economic Geography, Clark University, vol. 88(1), pages 59-76, 01.
  12. Bender, Marko & Lutz, Eva, 2009. "Patterns in spatial proximity between venture capital investors and investees in Germany: an empirical analysis," CEFS Working Paper Series 2009-06, Center for Entrepreneurial and Financial Studies (CEFS), Technische Universität München.
  13. Terttu Luukkonen, & Mari Maunula,, 2006. "Coaching Small Biotech Companies into Success: The Value-adding Function of VC," Discussion Papers 1032, The Research Institute of the Finnish Economy.
  14. Achleitner, Ann-Kristin & Bender, Marko & Kaserer, Christoph & Lutz, Eva, 2010. "Geographic location of a new venture and the likelihood of a venture capital investment," CEFS Working Paper Series 2010-02, Center for Entrepreneurial and Financial Studies (CEFS), Technische Universität München.
  15. Backman, Mikaela, 2013. "Banks and New Firm Formation," Working Paper Series in Economics and Institutions of Innovation 301, Royal Institute of Technology, CESIS - Centre of Excellence for Science and Innovation Studies.

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