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Entrepreneurship in the EU: to wish and not to be

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  • Isabel Grilo
  • Jesus Maria Irigoyen
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    Abstract

    It is now widely acknowledged that the entrepreneurial capacity in an economy is a key determinant of economic growth and productivity improvements. This paper uses survey data from the 15 EU Member States and the US to establish the effect of demographic and other variables on latent and actual entrepreneurship. Latent entrepreneurship is measured by the probability of a declared preference for self-employment over employment. Other than demographic variables such as gender, age and education level, the set of explanatory variables used includes country specific effects, the perception by respondents of administrative complexities and of availability of financial support and a rough measure of risk tolerance. The most striking result is the lack of explanatory power of the perception of lack of available financial support in the latent entrepreneurship equation.

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    Bibliographic Info

    Paper provided by Max Planck Institute of Economics, Entrepreneurship, Growth and Public Policy Group in its series Papers on Entrepreneurship, Growth and Public Policy with number 2005-01.

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    Length: 31 pages
    Date of creation: Aug 2005
    Date of revision:
    Handle: RePEc:esi:egpdis:2005-01

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    Related research

    Keywords: Entrepreneurship; self-employment; administrative complexities; access to finance; risk attitudes; probit regression;

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    References

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    1. Evans, David S & Leighton, Linda S, 1989. "Some Empirical Aspects of Entrepreneurship," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 79(3), pages 519-35, June.
    2. André van Stel & Roy Thurik & Sander Wennekers & David Storey, 2006. "From nascent to actual entrepreneurship: the effect of entry barriers," Scales Research Reports N200508, EIM Business and Policy Research.
    3. Blanchflower, David G & Oswald, Andrew J, 1998. "What Makes an Entrepreneur?," Journal of Labor Economics, University of Chicago Press, vol. 16(1), pages 26-60, January.
    4. David B. Audretsch & A. Roy Thurik, 1999. "Innovation, Industry Evoluation and Employment," Tinbergen Institute Discussion Papers 99-068/3, Tinbergen Institute.
    5. Audretsch, David B, et al, 2002. "Impeded Industrial Restructuring: The Growth Penalty," Kyklos, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 55(1), pages 81-97.
    6. David Audretsch & Roy Thurik, 2004. "A Model of the Entrepreneurial Economy," Papers on Entrepreneurship, Growth and Public Policy 2004-12, Max Planck Institute of Economics, Entrepreneurship, Growth and Public Policy Group.
    7. Blanchflower, David G. & Oswald, Andrew & Stutzer, Alois, 2001. "Latent entrepreneurship across nations," European Economic Review, Elsevier, vol. 45(4-6), pages 680-691, May.
    8. Evans, David S & Jovanovic, Boyan, 1989. "An Estimated Model of Entrepreneurial Choice under Liquidity Constraints," Journal of Political Economy, University of Chicago Press, vol. 97(4), pages 808-27, August.
    9. Jovanovic, Boyan, 1982. "Selection and the Evolution of Industry," Econometrica, Econometric Society, vol. 50(3), pages 649-70, May.
    10. Isabel Grilo & Roy Thurik, 2008. "Determinants of entrepreneurial engagement levels in Europe and the US," Industrial and Corporate Change, Oxford University Press, vol. 17(6), pages 1113-1145, December.
    11. Roy Thurik & Isabel Grilo, 2006. "Latent and actual entrepreneurship in Europe and the US: some recent developments," Scales Research Reports N200514, EIM Business and Policy Research.
    12. Robert E. Lucas Jr., 1978. "On the Size Distribution of Business Firms," Bell Journal of Economics, The RAND Corporation, vol. 9(2), pages 508-523, Autumn.
    13. David Audretsch & Roy Thurik, 0000. "Sources of Growth," Tinbergen Institute Discussion Papers 97-109/3, Tinbergen Institute.
    14. Pia Arenius & Maria Minniti, 2005. "Perceptual Variables and Nascent Entrepreneurship," Small Business Economics, Springer, vol. 24(3), pages 233-247, 02.
    15. Audretsch, David B. & Carree, Martin A. & van Stel, André J. & Thurik, A. Roy, 2000. "Impeded industrial restructuring : the growth penalty," HWWA Discussion Papers 114, Hamburg Institute of International Economics (HWWA).
    16. Holmes, Thomas J & Schmitz, James A, Jr, 1990. "A Theory of Entrepreneurship and Its Application to the Study of Business Transfers," Journal of Political Economy, University of Chicago Press, vol. 98(2), pages 265-94, April.
    17. Blanchflower, David G & Meyer, Bruce D, 1994. " A Longitudinal Analysis of the Young Self-Employed in Australia and the United States," Small Business Economics, Springer, vol. 6(1), pages 1-19, February.
    18. David Audretsch & Michael Fritsch, 2002. "Growth Regimes over Time and Space," Regional Studies, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 36(2), pages 113-124.
    19. Kihlstrom, Richard E & Laffont, Jean-Jacques, 1979. "A General Equilibrium Entrepreneurial Theory of Firm Formation Based on Risk Aversion," Journal of Political Economy, University of Chicago Press, vol. 87(4), pages 719-48, August.
    20. Lin, Zhengxi & Picot, Garnett & Compton, Janice, 2000. " The Entry and Exit Dynamics of Self-Employment in Canada," Small Business Economics, Springer, vol. 15(2), pages 105-25, September.
    21. Wennekers, Sander & Thurik, Roy, 1999. " Linking Entrepreneurship and Economic Growth," Small Business Economics, Springer, vol. 13(1), pages 27-55, August.
    22. Roy Thurik & Sander Wennekers & Lorraine Uhlaner, 2002. "Entrepreneurship and economic performance: a macro perspective," Scales Research Reports N200220, EIM Business and Policy Research.
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    Citations

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    Cited by:
    1. Erik Stam & David Audretsch & Joris Meijaard, 2008. "Renascent entrepreneurship," Journal of Evolutionary Economics, Springer, vol. 18(3), pages 493-507, August.
      • Stam, F.C. & Audretsch, D.B. & Meijaard, J., 2006. "Renascent Entrepreneurship," ERIM Report Series Research in Management ERS-2006-017-ORG, Erasmus Research Institute of Management (ERIM), ERIM is the joint research institute of the Rotterdam School of Management, Erasmus University and the Erasmus School of Economics (ESE) at Erasmus Uni.
    2. Lorraine Uhlaner & Roy Thurik, 2005. "Post-Materialism Influencing Total Entrepreneurial Activity Across Nations," Papers on Entrepreneurship, Growth and Public Policy 2005-20, Max Planck Institute of Economics, Entrepreneurship, Growth and Public Policy Group.
    3. Schutjens, V. & Stam, F.C., 2006. "Starting Anew: Entrepreneurial Intentions and Realizations Subsequent to Business Closure," ERIM Report Series Research in Management ERS-2006-015-ORG, Erasmus Research Institute of Management (ERIM), ERIM is the joint research institute of the Rotterdam School of Management, Erasmus University and the Erasmus School of Economics (ESE) at Erasmus Uni.
    4. Sander Wennekers & Roy Thurik & Andr� van Stel & Niels Noorderhaven, 2003. "Uncertainty Avoidance and the Rate of Business Ownership across 22 OECD Countries, 1976-2000," Tinbergen Institute Discussion Papers 03-089/3, Tinbergen Institute, revised 01 Sep 2004.
    5. Erik Stam & David Audretsch & Joris Meijaard, 2006. "Renascent Entrepreneurship - Entrepreneurial Preferences Subsequent to Firm Exit," Papers on Entrepreneurship, Growth and Public Policy 2006-06, Max Planck Institute of Economics, Entrepreneurship, Growth and Public Policy Group.
    6. Roy Thurik & Isabel Grilo, 2006. "Entrepreneurial engagement levels in the European Union," Scales Research Reports N200515, EIM Business and Policy Research.
    7. Roy Thurik & Isabel Grilo, 2006. "Latent and actual entrepreneurship in Europe and the US: some recent developments," Scales Research Reports N200514, EIM Business and Policy Research.
    8. Audretsch, David B & Meijaard, Joris & Stam, Erik, 2005. "Renascent Men or Entrepreneurship as a One-Night Stand: Entrepreneurial Intentions Subsequent to Firm Exit," CEPR Discussion Papers 5342, C.E.P.R. Discussion Papers.

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