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Income Satisfaction Inequality and Its Causes

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  • Ada Ferrer-i-Carbonell
  • Bernard M. S. van Praag

Abstract

In this paper, the concept of Income Satisfaction Inequality is operationalized on the basis of individual responses to an Income Satisfaction question posed in the German Socio-Economic Panel (GSOEP). Income satisfaction is the subjective analogue of the objective income concept and includes objective income inequality as a special case. The paper introduces a method to decompose Income Satisfaction Inequality according to the contributions from variables such as income, education, and the number of children. Given the panel structure of the data, inequality may be attributed partly to permanent individual circumstances and partly to transitory changes. The paper shows that by far the largest part of the satisfaction inequality has to be ascribed to unobserved heterogeneity. Distinguishing between a structural and an unexplained part of inequality we find that income explains the largest part of structural Income Satisfaction Inequality together with household membership; for non-working individuals, the age distribution is very relevant as well.

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File URL: http://www.diw.de/documents/publikationen/73/diw_01.c.40757.de/dp367.pdf
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Bibliographic Info

Paper provided by DIW Berlin, German Institute for Economic Research in its series Discussion Papers of DIW Berlin with number 367.

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Length: 25 p.
Date of creation: 2003
Date of revision:
Handle: RePEc:diw:diwwpp:dp367

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Keywords: Equivalent Income; Financial Satisfaction; Income Satisfaction; Income Inequality; Variance Decomposition.;

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References

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  1. Ferrer-i-Carbonell, Ada, 2005. "Income and well-being: an empirical analysis of the comparison income effect," Journal of Public Economics, Elsevier, Elsevier, vol. 89(5-6), pages 997-1019, June.
  2. Cowell, F.A., 2000. "Measurement of inequality," Handbook of Income Distribution, Elsevier, in: A.B. Atkinson & F. Bourguignon (ed.), Handbook of Income Distribution, edition 1, volume 1, chapter 2, pages 87-166 Elsevier.
  3. Richard A. Easterlin, 2000. "The Worldwide Standard of Living since 1800," Journal of Economic Perspectives, American Economic Association, American Economic Association, vol. 14(1), pages 7-26, Winter.
  4. Bruno S. Frey & Alois Stutzer, 2000. "Happiness, Economy and Institutions," CESifo Working Paper Series 246, CESifo Group Munich.
  5. Atkinson, Anthony B., 1970. "On the measurement of inequality," Journal of Economic Theory, Elsevier, Elsevier, vol. 2(3), pages 244-263, September.
  6. Clark, Andrew E. & Oswald, Andrew J., 1994. "Satisfaction and comparison income," CEPREMAP Working Papers (Couverture Orange) 9408, CEPREMAP.
  7. Bernard M. S. van Praag & P. Frijters & Ada Ferrer-i-Carbonell, 2001. "The Anatomy of Subjective Well-Being," Discussion Papers of DIW Berlin 265, DIW Berlin, German Institute for Economic Research.
  8. Van Praag, Bernard, 1971. "The welfare function of income in Belgium: An empirical investigation," European Economic Review, Elsevier, Elsevier, vol. 11(3), pages 337-369.
  9. Theil, Henri, 1979. "The measurement of inequality by components of income," Economics Letters, Elsevier, Elsevier, vol. 2(2), pages 197-199.
  10. Hunt, Jennifer, 1999. "Determinants of Non-Employment and Unemployment Durations in East Germany," CEPR Discussion Papers, C.E.P.R. Discussion Papers 2182, C.E.P.R. Discussion Papers.
  11. Ng, Yew-Kwang, 1997. "A Case for Happiness, Cardinalism, and Interpersonal Comparability," Economic Journal, Royal Economic Society, Royal Economic Society, vol. 107(445), pages 1848-58, November.
  12. Van Praag, Bernard M.S., 1977. "The perception of welfare inequality," European Economic Review, Elsevier, Elsevier, vol. 10(2), pages 189-207.
  13. Robert J. MacCulloch & Rafael Di Tella & Andrew J. Oswald, 2001. "Preferences over Inflation and Unemployment: Evidence from Surveys of Happiness," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, American Economic Association, vol. 91(1), pages 335-341, March.
  14. Clark, Andrew E & Oswald, Andrew J, 1994. "Unhappiness and Unemployment," Economic Journal, Royal Economic Society, Royal Economic Society, vol. 104(424), pages 648-59, May.
  15. Markus Pannenberg, 1997. "Documentation of Sample Sizes and Panel Attrition in the German Socio Economic Panel (GSOEP) (1984 until 1996)," Discussion Papers of DIW Berlin 150, DIW Berlin, German Institute for Economic Research.
  16. Hunt, Jennifer, 2000. "Why Do People Still Live In East Germany?," CEPR Discussion Papers, C.E.P.R. Discussion Papers 2431, C.E.P.R. Discussion Papers.
  17. Baker, Michael, 1997. "Growth-Rate Heterogeneity and the Covariance Structure of Life-Cycle Earnings," Journal of Labor Economics, University of Chicago Press, University of Chicago Press, vol. 15(2), pages 338-75, April.
  18. Amartya Sen, 1999. "The Possibility of Social Choice," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, American Economic Association, vol. 89(3), pages 349-378, June.
  19. Lee A. Lillard & Robert J. Willis, 1976. "Dynamic Aspects of Earnings Mobility," NBER Working Papers 0150, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  20. van Praag, Bernard M. S., 1991. "Ordinal and cardinal utility : An integration of the two dimensions of the welfare concept," Journal of Econometrics, Elsevier, Elsevier, vol. 50(1-2), pages 69-89, October.
  21. Mundlak, Yair, 1978. "On the Pooling of Time Series and Cross Section Data," Econometrica, Econometric Society, Econometric Society, vol. 46(1), pages 69-85, January.
  22. Frijters, Paul, 2000. "Do individuals try to maximize general satisfaction?," Journal of Economic Psychology, Elsevier, Elsevier, vol. 21(3), pages 281-304, June.
  23. Ada Ferrer-i-Carbonell & Bernard M.S. van Praag, 2002. "The Subjective Costs of Health Losses due to Chronic Diseases," Tinbergen Institute Discussion Papers 02-023/3, Tinbergen Institute.
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