Advanced Search
MyIDEAS: Login to save this paper or follow this series

Self-Employment and Economic Performance: A Geographically Weighted Regression Approach for European Regions

Contents:

Author Info

  • Katharina Pijnenburg
Registered author(s):

    Abstract

    The self-employment rate includes entrepreneurs out of opportunity and entrepreneurs out of necessity. While the effect of opportunity entrepreneurs on economic development should be positive, there should be no or a negative effect of necessity entrepreneurship. We use a geographically weighted regression (GWR) approach to analyze whether the effect of self-employment on economic development is heterogeneous across European NUTS-2 regions. We find that regions having a significant positive effect of self-employment on economic development in the GWR estimation have, on average, a lower self-employment rate than regions with a significant negative effect. The concept of equilibrium rate of entrepreneurship is applied in an attempt to estimate a level of the self-employment rate from which relatively more entrepreneurs are self-employed out of necessity than out of opportunity. We find that in regions where the self-employment rate is above the equilibrium rate, self-employment has indeed a negative effect, while in regions where it is below the equilibrium rate the effect is positive.

    Download Info

    If you experience problems downloading a file, check if you have the proper application to view it first. In case of further problems read the IDEAS help page. Note that these files are not on the IDEAS site. Please be patient as the files may be large.
    File URL: http://www.diw.de/documents/publikationen/73/diw_01.c.416595.de/dp1272.pdf
    Download Restriction: no

    Bibliographic Info

    Paper provided by DIW Berlin, German Institute for Economic Research in its series Discussion Papers of DIW Berlin with number 1272.

    as in new window
    Length: 33 p.
    Date of creation: 2013
    Date of revision:
    Handle: RePEc:diw:diwwpp:dp1272

    Contact details of provider:
    Postal: Mohrenstraße 58, D-10117 Berlin
    Phone: xx49-30-89789-0
    Fax: xx49-30-89789-200
    Email:
    Web page: http://www.diw.de/en
    More information through EDIRC

    Related research

    Keywords: self-employment; economic performance; geographically weighted regression;

    Find related papers by JEL classification:

    This paper has been announced in the following NEP Reports:

    References

    References listed on IDEAS
    Please report citation or reference errors to , or , if you are the registered author of the cited work, log in to your RePEc Author Service profile, click on "citations" and make appropriate adjustments.:
    as in new window
    1. Daniel Berkowitz & David DeJong, 2001. "Entrepreneurship and Post-Socialist Growth," William Davidson Institute Working Papers Series 406, William Davidson Institute at the University of Michigan.
    2. Puga, Diego, 2001. "European Regional Policies in Light of Recent Location Theories," CEPR Discussion Papers 2767, C.E.P.R. Discussion Papers.
    3. Niels Bosma & Gerrit Wit & Martin Carree, 2005. "Modelling Entrepreneurship: Unifying The Equilibrium and Entry/Exit Approach," Small Business Economics, Springer, vol. 25(1), pages 35-48, 08.
    4. Michael Fritsch & Alexandra Schroeter, 2011. "Why does the effect of new business formation differ across regions?," Small Business Economics, Springer, vol. 36(4), pages 383-400, May.
    5. A. Rodriguez-Pose & Riccardo Crescenzi, 2006. "R&D, spillovers, innovatoin systems and the genesis of regional growth in Europe," Departmental Working Papers of Economics - University 'Roma Tre' 0067, Department of Economics - University Roma Tre.
    6. Giulia Faggio & Olmo Silva, 2012. "Does Self-Employment Measure Entrepreneurship? Evidence from Great Britain," SERC Discussion Papers 0109, Spatial Economics Research Centre, LSE.
    7. André van Stel & Roy Thurik & Sander Wennekers & Martin Carree, 2007. "The relationship between economic development and business ownership revisited," Scales Research Reports H200705, EIM Business and Policy Research.
    8. Audretsch, David B. & Keilbach, Max, 2002. "Entrepreneurship Capital and Economic Performance," ZEW Discussion Papers 02-76, ZEW - Zentrum für Europäische Wirtschaftsforschung / Center for European Economic Research.
    9. André van Stel & Roy Thurik & Sander Wennekers & Martin Carree, 2010. "The relationship between entrepreneurship and economic development: is it U-shaped?," Scales Research Reports H200824, EIM Business and Policy Research.
    10. Acs, Zoltán J & Audretsch, David B & Braunerhjelm, Pontus & Carlsson, Bo, 2005. "The Knowledge Spillover Theory of Entrepreneurship," CEPR Discussion Papers 5326, C.E.P.R. Discussion Papers.
    11. Michael Fritsch & Michael Wyrwich, 2012. "The Long Persistence of Regional Entrepreneurship Culture: Germany 1925-2005," Jena Economic Research Papers 2012-036, Friedrich-Schiller-University Jena, Max-Planck-Institute of Economics.
    12. Andres Rodriguez-Pose & Riccardo regstdcenzi, 2008. "Research and Development, Spillovers, Innovation Systems, and the Genesis of Regional Growth in Europe," Regional Studies, Taylor & Francis Journals, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 42(1), pages 51-67.
    13. Zoltan Acs & Sameeksha Desai & Jolanda Hessels, 2008. "Entrepreneurship, economic development and institutions," Small Business Economics, Springer, vol. 31(3), pages 219-234, October.
    14. Marcus Dejardin & Martin Carree, 2011. "Firm Entry and Exit in Local Markets: Market Pull and Unemployment Push," Working Papers 1114, University of Namur, Department of Economics.
    15. Guido Tabellini, 2010. "Culture and Institutions: Economic Development in the Regions of Europe," Journal of the European Economic Association, MIT Press, MIT Press, vol. 8(4), pages 677-716, 06.
    16. Sjoerd Beugelsdijk, 2004. "Entrepreneurial Culture, Regional Innovativeness and Economic Growth," ERSA conference papers ersa04p210, European Regional Science Association.
    17. Bottazzi, Laura & Peri, Giovanni, 2003. "Innovation and spillovers in regions: Evidence from European patent data," European Economic Review, Elsevier, vol. 47(4), pages 687-710, August.
    18. Zoltan J. Acs & Catherine Armington, 2004. "Employment Growth and Entrepreneurial Activity in Cities," Papers on Entrepreneurship, Growth and Public Policy, Max Planck Institute of Economics, Entrepreneurship, Growth and Public Policy Group 2004-13, Max Planck Institute of Economics, Entrepreneurship, Growth and Public Policy Group.
    19. Pfeiffer, Friedhelm & Reize, Frank, 1998. "Business Start-ups by the Unemployed - an Econometric Analysis Based on Firm Data," ZEW Discussion Papers 98-38, ZEW - Zentrum für Europäische Wirtschaftsforschung / Center for European Economic Research.
    20. A. Roy Thurik & Martin A. Carree & Andre van Stel & David B. Audretsch, 2007. "Does Self-Employment reduce Unemployment?," Jena Economic Research Papers 2007-089, Friedrich-Schiller-University Jena, Max-Planck-Institute of Economics.
    21. Richard Shearmur & Philippe Apparicio & Pauline Lizion & Mario Pol�Se, 2007. "Space, Time, and Local Employment Growth: An Application of Spatial Regression Analysis," Growth and Change, Gatton College of Business and Economics, University of Kentucky, vol. 38(4), pages 696-722.
    22. Adriaan J. van Stel & David J. Storey, 2004. "The link between firm births and job creation: Is there a Upas Tree effect?," Papers on Entrepreneurship, Growth and Public Policy, Max Planck Institute of Economics, Entrepreneurship, Growth and Public Policy Group 2004-33, Max Planck Institute of Economics, Entrepreneurship, Growth and Public Policy Group.
    23. Mark D. Partridge & Dan S. Rickman & Kamar Ali & M. Rose Olfert, 2008. "The Geographic Diversity of U.S. Nonmetropolitan Growth Dynamics: A Geographically Weighted Regression Approach," Land Economics, University of Wisconsin Press, vol. 84(2), pages 241-266.
    24. Niebuhr, Annekatrin & Stiller, Silvia, 2002. "Integration effects in border regions - a survey of economic theory and empirical studies," ERSA conference papers ersa02p066, European Regional Science Association.
    25. Yee Leung & Chang-Lin Mei & Wen-Xiu Zhang, 2000. "Statistical tests for spatial nonstationarity based on the geographically weighted regression model," Environment and Planning A, Pion Ltd, London, vol. 32(1), pages 9-32, January.
    Full references (including those not matched with items on IDEAS)

    Citations

    Lists

    This item is not listed on Wikipedia, on a reading list or among the top items on IDEAS.

    Statistics

    Access and download statistics

    Corrections

    When requesting a correction, please mention this item's handle: RePEc:diw:diwwpp:dp1272. See general information about how to correct material in RePEc.

    For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: (Bibliothek).

    If you have authored this item and are not yet registered with RePEc, we encourage you to do it here. This allows to link your profile to this item. It also allows you to accept potential citations to this item that we are uncertain about.

    If references are entirely missing, you can add them using this form.

    If the full references list an item that is present in RePEc, but the system did not link to it, you can help with this form.

    If you know of missing items citing this one, you can help us creating those links by adding the relevant references in the same way as above, for each refering item. If you are a registered author of this item, you may also want to check the "citations" tab in your profile, as there may be some citations waiting for confirmation.

    Please note that corrections may take a couple of weeks to filter through the various RePEc services.