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Start-Ups by the Unemployed: Characteristics, Survival and Direct Employment Effects

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Author Info

  • Caliendo, Marco

    ()
    (University of Potsdam)

  • Kritikos, Alexander S.

    ()
    (University of Potsdam, DIW Berlin)

Abstract

Fostering and supporting start-up businesses by unemployed persons has become an increasingly important issue in many European countries. These new ventures are being supported by various governmental programs. Potential benefits include not only the end of unemployment for the new entrepreneur but also some further positive effects, e.g., direct job creation. However, it is often feared that the previously unemployed lack the basic qualifications to become entrepreneurs. Empirical evidence on skill-composition, direct job creation and other key variables is rather scarce, largely because of inadequate data availability. We base our analysis on a unique and very informative survey data containing a representative sample of over 3,100 start-ups founded by unemployed persons in Germany. Individuals were subsidized under two different schemes, and we are able to draw on extensive pre- and post-founding information concerning the characteristics of the business (start-up capital, industry, etc.) and of the business founders (education, motivation, preparation, etc.). We find that formerly unemployed founders are motivated by push and pull factors. Using a proportional hazard duration model with unobserved heterogeneity allows us to analyze the characteristics which drive success of the businesses. While survival rates 2.5 years after business founding are quite high (around 70%) for both programs and genders, the characteristics of the newly developed businesses are heterogeneous.

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Bibliographic Info

Paper provided by Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA) in its series IZA Discussion Papers with number 3220.

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Length: 35 pages
Date of creation: Dec 2007
Date of revision:
Handle: RePEc:iza:izadps:dp3220

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Keywords: self-employment; start-up subsidies; unemployment; direct employment effects; survival;

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References

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  1. Baumgartner, Hans J. & Caliendo, Marco, 2007. "Turning Unemployment into Self-Employment: Effectiveness and Efficiency of Two Start-Up Programmes," IZA Discussion Papers 2660, Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA).
  2. Pfeiffer, Friedhelm & Reize, Frank, 1998. "Business Start-ups by the Unemployed - an Econometric Analysis Based on Firm Data," ZEW Discussion Papers 98-38, ZEW - Zentrum für Europäische Wirtschaftsforschung / Center for European Economic Research.
  3. Schnabel, Claus & Kohaut, Susanne & Brixy, Udo, 2004. "Do newly founded firms pay lower wages? First evidence from Germany," Discussion Papers 28, Friedrich-Alexander-University Erlangen-Nuremberg, Chair of Labour and Regional Economics.
  4. Caliendo, Marco & Kritikos, Alexander S., 2007. "Die reformierte Gründungsförderung für Arbeitslose: Chancen und Risiken," IZA Discussion Papers 3114, Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA).
  5. Michael Fritsch & Pamela Mueller, 2008. "The effect of new business formation on regional development over time: the case of Germany," Small Business Economics, Springer, vol. 30(1), pages 15-29, January.
  6. Michael Fritsch, 2004. "Entrepreneurship, entry and performance of new business compared in two growth regimes: East and West Germany," Journal of Evolutionary Economics, Springer, vol. 14(5), pages 525-542, December.
  7. Blanchflower, D.G. & Oswald, A., 1991. "What Makes an Entrepreneur?," Economics Series Working Papers 99125, University of Oxford, Department of Economics.
  8. Marco Caliendo & Frank M. Fossen & Alexander S. Kritikos, 2006. "Risk Attitudes of Nascent Entrepreneurs: New Evidence from an Experimentally-Validated Survey," Discussion Papers of DIW Berlin 600, DIW Berlin, German Institute for Economic Research.
  9. Josef Zweimuller & Rudolf Winter-Ebmer, 1999. "Firm-Size Wage Differentials in Switzerland: Evidence from Job-Changers," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 89(2), pages 89-93, May.
  10. Audretsch, David & Vivarelli, Marco, 1995. "New-firm formation in Italy: A first report," Economics Letters, Elsevier, vol. 48(1), pages 77-81, April.
  11. Eichhorst, Werner & Zimmermann, Klaus F, 2007. "And Then There Were Four... How Many (and Which) Measures of Active Labour Market Policy Do We Still Need?," CEPR Discussion Papers 6246, C.E.P.R. Discussion Papers.
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  13. Simon Parker & Mirjam van Praag, 2004. "Schooling, Capital Constraints and Entrepreneurial Performance," Tinbergen Institute Discussion Papers 04-106/3, Tinbergen Institute, revised 07 Mar 2005.
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  15. Blanchflower, D. & Oswald, A., 1990. "What Makes A Young Entrepreneur?," Papers 373, London School of Economics - Centre for Labour Economics.
  16. Marco Caliendo & Viktor Steiner, 2005. "Aktive Arbeitsmarktpolitik in Deutschland: Bestandsaufnahme und Bewertung der mikroökonomischen Evaluationsergebnisse," Discussion Papers of DIW Berlin 515, DIW Berlin, German Institute for Economic Research.
  17. Barton H. Hamilton, 2000. "Does Entrepreneurship Pay? An Empirical Analysis of the Returns to Self-Employment," Journal of Political Economy, University of Chicago Press, vol. 108(3), pages 604-631, June.
  18. Robert Fairlie, 2005. "Entrepreneurship and Earnings among Young Adults from Disadvantaged Families," Small Business Economics, Springer, vol. 25(3), pages 223-236, October.
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  20. Michael Fritsch & Antje Weyh, 2006. "How Large are the Direct Employment Effects of New Businesses? An Empirical Investigation for West Germany," Small Business Economics, Springer, vol. 27(2), pages 245-260, October.
  21. Eric Bartelsman & Stefano Scarpetta & Fabiano Schivardi, 2005. "Comparative analysis of firm demographics and survival: evidence from micro-level sources in OECD countries," Industrial and Corporate Change, Oxford University Press, vol. 14(3), pages 365-391, June.
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