Gender, Social Norms and Household Production in Burkina Faso
AbstractEmpirical studies of intra-household allocation has revealed that, in many instances, gender is an important determinant in the allocation of resources within the household. Yet, within the theoretical literature, why gender matters within the household remains an open question. In this paper, we propose a simple model of intra-household allocation based on a particular social institution for the organisation of agricultural production practised among certain ethnic groups in West Africa. We highlight how this institution, while resolving certain problems of commitment and informational asymmetry, can also lead to a gendered pattern in the allocation of productive resources and consumption within the household. Using a survey of agricultural households in Burkina Faso, we show, consistent with this theory, that plots owned by the head of the household are farmed more intensively, and achieves higher yields, than plots with similar characteristics owned by other household members. Male and female family members who do not head the household achieve similar yields. We argue that the higher yields achieved by the household head may be explained in terms of social norms that require him to spend the earnings from some plots under his control exclusively on household public goods, which in turn provides other family members the incentive to voluntarily contribute labour on his farms. Using expenditures data, and measures of rainfall to capture weather-related shocks to agricultural income, we show that the household head has, indeed, a higher marginal propensity to spend on household public goods than other household members. The fact that the head of the household is usually male accounts for the gendered pattern in labour allocation and yields across different farm plots.
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Bibliographic InfoPaper provided by Centre for the Study of African Economies, University of Oxford in its series CSAE Working Paper Series with number 2010-33.
Date of creation: 2010
Date of revision:
Other versions of this item:
- Harounan Kazianga & Zaki Wahhaj, 2013. "Gender, Social Norms, and Household Production in Burkina Faso," Economic Development and Cultural Change, University of Chicago Press, University of Chicago Press, vol. 61(3), pages 539 - 576.
- Harounan Kazianga & Zaki Wahhaj, 2010. "Gender, Social Norms and Household Production in Burkina Faso," Economics Working Paper Series, Oklahoma State University, Department of Economics and Legal Studies in Business 0910, Oklahoma State University, Department of Economics and Legal Studies in Business, revised Sep 2011.
- Zaki Wahhaj & Harounan Kanzianga, 2010. "Gender, Social Norms and Household Production in Burkina Faso," Economics Series Working Papers, University of Oxford, Department of Economics CSAE WPS/2010-33, University of Oxford, Department of Economics.
- O12 - Economic Development, Technological Change, and Growth - - Economic Development - - - Microeconomic Analyses of Economic Development
- D13 - Microeconomics - - Household Behavior - - - Household Production and Intrahouse Allocation
- Q1 - Agricultural and Natural Resource Economics; Environmental and Ecological Economics - - Agriculture
This paper has been announced in the following NEP Reports:
- NEP-ALL-2010-11-06 (All new papers)
- NEP-DEV-2010-11-06 (Development)
- NEP-SOC-2010-11-06 (Social Norms & Social Capital)
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- Akresh, Richard & Chen, Joyce J. & Moore, Charity, 2011. "Altruism, Cooperation, and Efficiency: Agricultural Production in Polygynous Households," IZA Discussion Papers 6265, Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA).
- Goetghebuer, Tatiana, 2011. "Productive inefficiency in patriarchal family farms: evidence from Mali," Proceedings of the German Development Economics Conference, Berlin 2011, Verein fÃ¼r Socialpolitik, Research Committee Development Economics 34, Verein für Socialpolitik, Research Committee Development Economics.
- Collins, Julia C. & Foltz, Jeremy D., 2013. "Gender Production Differentials In Africa," 2013 Annual Meeting, August 4-6, 2013, Washington, D.C., Agricultural and Applied Economics Association 150130, Agricultural and Applied Economics Association.
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