Advanced Search
MyIDEAS: Login to save this paper or follow this series

Income Contributions of Child Work in Rural Ethiopia

Contents:

Author Info

  • John Cockburn

Abstract

The income contribution of child work is undoubtedly a key factor influencing child work and schooling decisions. Yet, few studies have attempted to directly measure this contribution. This is particularly the case for work performed on the household farm, as is the case for the vast majority of child workers, rather than for wages. In this study, we estimate a household income function with child labour included as an input. Results using a variety of functional forms and alternative child labour variables are compared. We conclude that children and adults are perfect labour substitutes and that the marginal productivity of children is roughly one-third to one-half that of male adults. The average contribution of each working child is estimated at 4 to 7% of household income, although there is substantial variation with contributions ranging up to 50%. These results underline the dependency of poor households on child work for survival.

Download Info

If you experience problems downloading a file, check if you have the proper application to view it first. In case of further problems read the IDEAS help page. Note that these files are not on the IDEAS site. Please be patient as the files may be large.
File URL: http://www.csae.ox.ac.uk/workingpapers/pdfs/2002-12text.pdf
Download Restriction: no

Bibliographic Info

Paper provided by Centre for the Study of African Economies, University of Oxford in its series CSAE Working Paper Series with number 2002-12.

as in new window
Length:
Date of creation: 2002
Date of revision:
Handle: RePEc:csa:wpaper:2002-12

Contact details of provider:
Postal: Manor Road, Oxford, OX1 3UQ
Phone: +44-(0)1865 271084
Fax: +44-(0)1865 281447
Email:
Web page: http://www.csae.ox.ac.uk/
More information through EDIRC

Related research

Keywords: child labour; schooling; Ethiopia; household production;

Other versions of this item:

Find related papers by JEL classification:

References

References listed on IDEAS
Please report citation or reference errors to , or , if you are the registered author of the cited work, log in to your RePEc Author Service profile, click on "citations" and make appropriate adjustments.:
as in new window
  1. De Vos, Susan, 1985. "An Old-Age Security Incentive for Children in the Philippines and Taiwan," Economic Development and Cultural Change, University of Chicago Press, University of Chicago Press, vol. 33(4), pages 793-814, July.
  2. Jacoby, Hanan G, 1993. "Shadow Wages and Peasant Family Labour Supply: An Econometric Application to the Peruvian Sierra," Review of Economic Studies, Wiley Blackwell, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 60(4), pages 903-21, October.
  3. Croppenstedt, Andre & Muller, Christophe, 2000. "The Impact of Farmers' Health and Nutritional Status on Their Productivity and Efficiency: Evidence from Ethiopia," Economic Development and Cultural Change, University of Chicago Press, University of Chicago Press, vol. 48(3), pages 475-502, April.
  4. Reuben Gronau & R. Layard, . "Home Production - A Survey," University of Chicago - Population Research Center, Chicago - Population Research Center 85-2, Chicago - Population Research Center.
  5. Udry, Christopher, 1996. "Gender, Agricultural Production, and the Theory of the Household," Journal of Political Economy, University of Chicago Press, University of Chicago Press, vol. 104(5), pages 1010-46, October.
  6. Serge Lambert & Thierry Magnac, 1997. "Implicit Prices and Recursivity of Agricultural Household's Decisions," Working Papers, Centre de Recherche en Economie et Statistique 97-31, Centre de Recherche en Economie et Statistique.
  7. MaCurdy, Thomas E & Pencavel, John H, 1986. "Testing between Competing Models of Wage and Employment Determination in Unionized Markets," Journal of Political Economy, University of Chicago Press, University of Chicago Press, vol. 94(3), pages S3-S39, June.
  8. George J. Mergos, 1992. "The Economic Contribution of Children in Peasant Agriculture and the Effect of Education: Evidence from the Philippines," The Pakistan Development Review, Pakistan Institute of Development Economics, Pakistan Institute of Development Economics, vol. 31(2), pages 189-201.
  9. Hoddinott, John, 1992. "Rotten Kids or Manipulative Parents: Are Children Old Age Security in Western Kenya?," Economic Development and Cultural Change, University of Chicago Press, University of Chicago Press, vol. 40(3), pages 545-65, April.
  10. repec:fth:oxesaf:2000-4 is not listed on IDEAS
  11. Sonia Bhalotra, 2003. "Child Labour in Africa," OECD Social, Employment and Migration Working Papers, OECD Publishing 4, OECD Publishing.
  12. John Bound & David A. Jaeger & Regina Baker, 1993. "The Cure Can Be Worse than the Disease: A Cautionary Tale Regarding Instrumental Variables," NBER Technical Working Papers, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc 0137, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  13. Gronau, Reuben, 1997. "The Theory of Home Production: The Past Ten Years," Journal of Labor Economics, University of Chicago Press, University of Chicago Press, vol. 15(2), pages 197-205, April.
  14. Basu, Kaushik & Van, Pham Hoang, 1998. "The Economics of Child Labor," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, American Economic Association, vol. 88(3), pages 412-27, June.
  15. Canagarajah, Sudharshan & Coulombe, Harold, 1997. "Child labor and schooling in Ghana," Policy Research Working Paper Series, The World Bank 1844, The World Bank.
  16. Sharada Weir & John Knight, 2000. "Education externalities in rural Ethiopia: evidence from average and stochastic frontier production functions," CSAE Working Paper Series, Centre for the Study of African Economies, University of Oxford 2000-04, Centre for the Study of African Economies, University of Oxford.
  17. Rosenzweig, Mark R & Evenson, Robert E, 1977. "Fertility, Schooling, and the Economic Contribution of Children in Rural India: An Econometric Analysis," Econometrica, Econometric Society, Econometric Society, vol. 45(5), pages 1065-79, July.
  18. Christopher B. Barrett & Shane M. Sherlund & Akinwumi A. Adesina, 2008. "Shadow wages, allocative inefficiency, and labor supply in smallholder agriculture," Agricultural Economics, International Association of Agricultural Economists, International Association of Agricultural Economists, vol. 38(1), pages 21-34, 01.
  19. Magnac, T. & Lambert, S., 1992. "Recursive or Non Recursive Agricultural Household Decision Making; An Application to Cote d'Ivoire," DELTA Working Papers, DELTA (Ecole normale supérieure) 92-20, DELTA (Ecole normale supérieure).
  20. Diewert, W E, 1971. "An Application of the Shephard Duality Theorem: A Generalized Leontief Production Function," Journal of Political Economy, University of Chicago Press, University of Chicago Press, vol. 79(3), pages 481-507, May-June.
  21. Mueller, Eva, 1984. "The value and allocation of time in rural Botswana," Journal of Development Economics, Elsevier, Elsevier, vol. 15(1-3), pages 329-360.
  22. Jacoby, Hanan G., 1991. "Productivity of men and women and the sexual division of labor in peasant agriculture of the Peruvian Sierra," Journal of Development Economics, Elsevier, Elsevier, vol. 37(1-2), pages 265-287, November.
Full references (including those not matched with items on IDEAS)

Citations

Citations are extracted by the CitEc Project, subscribe to its RSS feed for this item.
as in new window

Cited by:
  1. L.Guarcello & S.Lyon & F.Rosati, 2006. "The Twin Challenges of Child labour and Youth Employment in Ethiopia," UCW Working Paper, Understanding Children's Work (UCW Programme) 18, Understanding Children's Work (UCW Programme).
  2. Lei Pan, 2007. "Risk Pooling through Transfers in Rural Ethiopia," Tinbergen Institute Discussion Papers, Tinbergen Institute 07-014/2, Tinbergen Institute, revised 28 Sep 2007.
  3. Lei Pan, 2009. "Risk Pooling through Transfers in Rural Ethiopia," Economic Development and Cultural Change, University of Chicago Press, University of Chicago Press, vol. 57(4), pages 809-835, 07.
  4. Nicola Jones & Andy Sumner, 2009. "Does Mixed Methods Research Matter to Understanding Childhood Well-Being?," Social Indicators Research, Springer, Springer, vol. 90(1), pages 33-50, January.

Lists

This item is not listed on Wikipedia, on a reading list or among the top items on IDEAS.

Statistics

Access and download statistics

Corrections

When requesting a correction, please mention this item's handle: RePEc:csa:wpaper:2002-12. See general information about how to correct material in RePEc.

For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: (Richard Payne).

If you have authored this item and are not yet registered with RePEc, we encourage you to do it here. This allows to link your profile to this item. It also allows you to accept potential citations to this item that we are uncertain about.

If references are entirely missing, you can add them using this form.

If the full references list an item that is present in RePEc, but the system did not link to it, you can help with this form.

If you know of missing items citing this one, you can help us creating those links by adding the relevant references in the same way as above, for each refering item. If you are a registered author of this item, you may also want to check the "citations" tab in your profile, as there may be some citations waiting for confirmation.

Please note that corrections may take a couple of weeks to filter through the various RePEc services.