Testing for Separation in Agricultural Household Models and Unobservable Household-Specific Effects
AbstractWhen market structure is complete, factor demands by households will be independent of their characteristics, and households will take their production decisions as if they were profit-maximizing firms. This observation constitutes the basis for one of the most popular empirical tests for complete markets, commonly known as the “separation” hypothesis. In this article, we show that most existing tests for separation using panel data are potentially biased towards rejecting the null-hypothesis of complete markets, because of the failure to adequately control for unobservable household-specific effects. Since the variables on which the test for separation is based cannot be identifed in most panel datasets following the usual covariance transformations, and are likely to be correlated with the household-specific effect, neither the within nor the variance-components procedures are able to solve the problem. We show that the Hausman-Taylor 1981 estimator, in which the impact of covariates that are invariant along one dimension of a panel can be identifed through the use of covariance transformations of other included variables that are orthogonal to the household-specific effects as instruments, provides a simple solution. Our approach is applied to a rich Tunisian dataset in which separation –and thus the null of complete markets– is strongly rejected using the standard approach, but is not rejected once correlated unobservable household-specific effects are controlled for using the Hausman-Taylor instrument set.
Download InfoIf you experience problems downloading a file, check if you have the proper application to view it first. In case of further problems read the IDEAS help page. Note that these files are not on the IDEAS site. Please be patient as the files may be large.
Bibliographic InfoPaper provided by HAL in its series Working Papers with number halshs-00557188.
Date of creation: 18 Jan 2011
Date of revision:
Note: View the original document on HAL open archive server: http://halshs.archives-ouvertes.fr/halshs-00557188/en/
Contact details of provider:
Web page: http://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/
panel data; household-specific effects; Household models; testingfor incomplete markets; development microeconomics; Tunisia;
Other versions of this item:
- Arcand, Jean-Louis & d'Hombres, Beatrice, 2006. "Testing for Separation in Agricultural Household Models and Unobservable Household-Specific Effects," MPRA Paper 1863, University Library of Munich, Germany.
- Béatrice D'HOMBRES & Jean-Louis ARCAND, 2006. "Testing for Separation in Agricultural Household Models and Unobservable Household-Specific Effects," Working Papers 200632, CERDI.
- D13 - Microeconomics - - Household Behavior - - - Household Production and Intrahouse Allocation
- O12 - Economic Development, Technological Change, and Growth - - Economic Development - - - Microeconomic Analyses of Economic Development
- D52 - Microeconomics - - General Equilibrium and Disequilibrium - - - Incomplete Markets
- C23 - Mathematical and Quantitative Methods - - Single Equation Models; Single Variables - - - Models with Panel Data; Spatio-temporal Models
This paper has been announced in the following NEP Reports:
Please report citation or reference errors to , or , if you are the registered author of the cited work, log in to your RePEc Author Service profile, click on "citations" and make appropriate adjustments.:
- MICHAEL R. CARTER & Pedro Olinto, 2000.
"Getting Institutions 'Right' for Whom: Credit Constraints and the Impact of Property Rights on the Quantity and Compostiton of Investment,"
Wisconsin-Madison Agricultural and Applied Economics Staff Papers
433, Wisconsin-Madison Agricultural and Applied Economics Department.
- Michael R. Carter & Pedro Olinto, 2003. "Getting Institutions “Right” for Whom? Credit Constraints and the Impact of Property Rights on the Quantity and Composition of Investment," American Journal of Agricultural Economics, Agricultural and Applied Economics Association, vol. 85(1), pages 173-186.
- Carter, Michael R. & Olinto, Pedro, 2000. "Getting Institutions 'Right' for Whom: Credit Constraints and the Impact of Property Rights on the Quantity and Compostiton of Investment," Staff Paper Series 433, University of Wisconsin, Agricultural and Applied Economics.
- Baltagi, Badi H & Khanti-Akom, Sophon, 1990. "On Efficient Estimation with Panel Data: An Empirical Comparison of Instrumental Variables Estimators," Journal of Applied Econometrics, John Wiley & Sons, Ltd., vol. 5(4), pages 401-06, Oct.-Dec..
- Bowlus, Audra J. & Sicular, Terry, 2003. "Moving toward markets? Labor allocation in rural China," Journal of Development Economics, Elsevier, vol. 71(2), pages 561-583, August.
- Barrett, Christopher B., 1996. "On price risk and the inverse farm size-productivity relationship," Journal of Development Economics, Elsevier, vol. 51(2), pages 193-215, December.
- Benjamin, Dwayne, 1992. "Household Composition, Labor Markets, and Labor Demand: Testing for Separation in Agricultural Household Models," Econometrica, Econometric Society, vol. 60(2), pages 287-322, March.
- Jacoby, Hanan G, 1993.
"Shadow Wages and Peasant Family Labour Supply: An Econometric Application to the Peruvian Sierra,"
Review of Economic Studies,
Wiley Blackwell, vol. 60(4), pages 903-21, October.
- Jacoby, H.G., 1990. "Shadow Wages And Peasant Family Labor Supply; An Econometric Application To The Peruvian Sierra," Papers 73, World Bank - Living Standards Measurement.
- Michael Kevane, 1996. "Agrarian Structure and Agricultural Practice: Typology and Application to Western Sudan," American Journal of Agricultural Economics, Agricultural and Applied Economics Association, vol. 78(1), pages 236-245.
- Lopez, Ramon E., 1984. "Estimating labor supply and production decisions of self-employed farm producers," European Economic Review, Elsevier, vol. 24(1), pages 61-82.
- Hall, Alastair R & Rudebusch, Glenn D & Wilcox, David W, 1996.
"Judging Instrument Relevance in Instrumental Variables Estimation,"
International Economic Review,
Department of Economics, University of Pennsylvania and Osaka University Institute of Social and Economic Research Association, vol. 37(2), pages 283-98, May.
- Alastair R. Hall & Glenn D. Rudebusch & David W. Wilcox, 1994. "Judging instrument relevance in instrumental variables estimation," Finance and Economics Discussion Series 94-3, Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System (U.S.).
- Cornelis Gardebroek & Alfons Oude Lansink, 2003. "Estimating Farm Productivity Differentials using Panel Data: The Hausman-Taylor Approach," Journal of Agricultural Economics, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 54(3), pages 397-415.
- Hausman, Jerry A & Taylor, William E, 1981.
"Panel Data and Unobservable Individual Effects,"
Econometric Society, vol. 49(6), pages 1377-98, November.
- Zvi Griliches & Jerry A. Hausman, 1984.
"Errors in Variables in Panel Data,"
NBER Technical Working Papers
0037, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
- Tadashi Sonoda & Yoshihiro Maruyama, 1999. "Effects of the Internal Wage on Output Supply: A Structural Estimation for Japanese Rice Farmers," American Journal of Agricultural Economics, Agricultural and Applied Economics Association, vol. 81(1), pages 131-143.
- Deininger, Klaus & Olinto, Pedro, 2000. "Why liberalization alone has not improved agricultural productivity in Zambia : the role of asset ownership and working capital constraints," Policy Research Working Paper Series 2302, The World Bank.
- Sarah Gavian & Marcel Fafchamps, 1996. "Land Tenure and Allocative Efficiency in Niger," American Journal of Agricultural Economics, Agricultural and Applied Economics Association, vol. 78(2), pages 460-471.
- Feder, Gershon, 1985. "The relation between farm size and farm productivity : The role of family labor, supervision and credit constraints," Journal of Development Economics, Elsevier, vol. 18(2-3), pages 297-313, August.
- Cornwell, Christopher & Rupert, Peter, 1988. "Efficient Estimation with Panel Data: An Empirical Comparison of Instrumental Variables Estimators," Journal of Applied Econometrics, John Wiley & Sons, Ltd., vol. 3(2), pages 149-55, April.
- Laffont, Jean-Jacques & Matoussi, Mohamed Salah., 1988.
"Moral Hazard, Financial Constraints and Sharecropping in El Oulja,"
667, California Institute of Technology, Division of the Humanities and Social Sciences.
- Laffont, Jean-Jacques & Matoussi, Mohamed Salah, 1995. "Moral Hazard, Financial Constraints and Sharecropping in El Oulja," Review of Economic Studies, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 62(3), pages 381-99, July.
- H. Baltagi, Badi & Heun Song, Seuck & Cheol Jung, Byoung, 2001. "The unbalanced nested error component regression model," Journal of Econometrics, Elsevier, vol. 101(2), pages 357-381, April.
- Michael R. Carter & Yang Yao, 2002. "Local versus Global Separability in Agricultural Household Models: The Factor Price Equalization Effect of Land Transfer Rights," American Journal of Agricultural Economics, Agricultural and Applied Economics Association, vol. 84(3), pages 702-715.
- Eswaran, Mukesh & Kotwal, Ashok, 1986. "Access to Capital and Agrarian Production Organisation," Economic Journal, Royal Economic Society, vol. 96(382), pages 482-98, June.
- Hsiao,Cheng, 2003.
"Analysis of Panel Data,"
Cambridge University Press, number 9780521818551, October.
- Benjamin, Dwayne, 1995. "Can unobserved land quality explain the inverse productivity relationship?," Journal of Development Economics, Elsevier, vol. 46(1), pages 51-84, February.
- Feder, Gershon & Lau, Lawrence J. & Lin, Justin Y. & Xiaopeng Luo, 1991. "Credit's effect on productivity in Chinese agriculture : a microeconomic model of disequilibrium," Policy Research Working Paper Series 571, The World Bank.
- Breusch, Trevor S & Mizon, Grayham E & Schmidt, Peter, 1989. "Efficient Estimation Using Panel Data," Econometrica, Econometric Society, vol. 57(3), pages 695-700, May.
For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: (CCSD).
If references are entirely missing, you can add them using this form.