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Supplier Responses to Wal-Mart's Invasion in Mexico

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  • Iacovone, Leonardo
  • Javorcik, Beata
  • Keller, Wolfgang
  • Tybout, James R

Abstract

This paper examines the effect of Wal-Mart's entry into Mexico on Mexican manufacturers of consumer goods. Guided by firm interviews that suggested substantial heterogeneity across firms in how they responded to Wal-Mart's entry, we develop a dynamic industry model in which firms decide whether to sell their products through Walmex (short for Wal-Mart de Mexico), or use traditional retailers. Walmex provides access to a larger market, but it puts continuous pressure on its suppliers to improve their product's appeal, and it forces them to accept relatively low prices relative to product appeal. Simulations of the model show that the arrival of Walmex separates potential suppliers into two groups. Those with relatively high-appeal products choose Walmex as their retailer, whereas those with lower appeal products do not. For the industry as a whole, the model predicts that the associated market share reallocations, adjustments in innovative effort, and exit patterns increase productivity and the rate of innovation. These predictions accord well with the results from our firm interviews. The model's predictions are also supported by establishment-level panel data that characterize Mexican producers' domestic sales, investments, and productivity gains in regions with di¤ering levels of Walmex presence during the years 1994 to 2002.

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Paper provided by C.E.P.R. Discussion Papers in its series CEPR Discussion Papers with number 8540.

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Date of creation: Aug 2011
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Handle: RePEc:cpr:ceprdp:8540

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Keywords: distribution systems; firm heterogeneity; foreign direct investment; innovation; logistics; NAFTA; retailing;

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References

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Cited by:
  1. Emily Blanchard & Tatyana Chesnokova & Gerald Willmann, 2013. "Private Labels and International Trade: Trading Variety for Volume," School of Economics Working Papers 2013-01, University of Adelaide, School of Economics.
  2. Beata Javorcik & Yue Li, 2013. "Do the Biggest Aisles Serve a Brighter Future? Global Retail Chains and Their Implications for Romania," Economics Series Working Papers 637, University of Oxford, Department of Economics.
  3. Angela Cheptea & Charlotte Emlinger & Karine Latouche, 2012. "Multinational Retailers and Home Country Exports," Working Papers 2012-34, CEPII research center.
  4. Blyde, Juan & Santamaria, Julieth, 2013. "Sharpen your skills: the impact of training employees on backward linkages," MPRA Paper 53367, University Library of Munich, Germany.

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