Openness and Industrial Responses in a Wal-Mart World: A Case Study of Mexican Soaps, Detergents and Surfactant Producers
AbstractThis paper uses a case study approach to explore the effects of NAFTA and GATT membership on innovation and trade in the Mexican soaps, detergents and surfactants (SDS) industry. Several basic findings emerge. First, the most fundamental effect of NAFTA and the GATT on the SDS industry was to help induce Wal-Mart to enter Mexico. Once there, Walmex fundamentally changed the retail sector, forcing SDS firms to cut their profit margins and/or innovate. Those unable to respond to this new environment tended to lose market share and, in some cases, disappear altogether. Second, partly in response to Walmex, many Mexican producers logged impressive efficiency gains during the previous decade. These gains came both from labor-shedding and from innovation, which in turn was fueled by innovative input suppliers and by multinationals bringing new products and processes from their headquarters to Mexico. Finally, although Mexican detergent exports captured an increasing share of the U.S. detergent market over the past decade, Mexican sales in the U.S. were inhibited by a combination of excessive shipping delays at the border and artificially high input prices (due to Mexican protection of domestic caustic soda suppliers). They were also held back by the major re-tooling costs that Mexican producers would have had to incur in order to establish brand recognition among non-Latin consumers, and in order to comply with zero phosphate laws in many regions of the United States.
Download InfoIf you experience problems downloading a file, check if you have the proper application to view it first. In case of further problems read the IDEAS help page. Note that these files are not on the IDEAS site. Please be patient as the files may be large.
Bibliographic InfoPaper provided by National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc in its series NBER Working Papers with number 12457.
Date of creation: Aug 2006
Date of revision:
Note: ITI PR IO
Contact details of provider:
Postal: National Bureau of Economic Research, 1050 Massachusetts Avenue Cambridge, MA 02138, U.S.A.
Web page: http://www.nber.org
More information through EDIRC
Other versions of this item:
- Beata Javorcik & Wolfgang Keller & James Tybout, 2008. "Openness and Industrial Response in a Wal-Mart World: A Case Study of Mexican Soaps, Detergents and Surfactant Producers," The World Economy, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 31(12), pages 1558-1580, December.
- Javorcik, Beata & Keller, Wolfgang & Tybout, James, 2006. "Openness and industrial response in a Wal-Mart world : a case study of Mexican soaps, detergents, and surfactant producers," Policy Research Working Paper Series 3999, The World Bank.
- Keller, Wolfgang & Smarzynska Javorcik, Beata & Tybout, James R, 2006. "Openness and Industrial Response in a Wal-Mart World: A Case Study of Mexican Soaps, Detergents and Surfactant Producers," CEPR Discussion Papers 5823, C.E.P.R. Discussion Papers.
- F1 - International Economics - - Trade
- F23 - International Economics - - International Factor Movements and International Business - - - Multinational Firms; International Business
- L65 - Industrial Organization - - Industry Studies: Manufacturing - - - Chemicals; Rubber; Drugs; Biotechnology
- L81 - Industrial Organization - - Industry Studies: Services - - - Retail and Wholesale Trade; e-Commerce
This paper has been announced in the following NEP Reports:
- NEP-ALL-2006-08-26 (All new papers)
Please report citation or reference errors to , or , if you are the registered author of the cited work, log in to your RePEc Author Service profile, click on "citations" and make appropriate adjustments.:
- Sanghamitra Das & Mark J. Roberts & James R. Tybout, 2007.
"Market Entry Costs, Producer Heterogeneity, and Export Dynamics,"
Econometric Society, vol. 75(3), pages 837-873, 05.
- Sanghamitra Das & Mark J. Roberts & James R. Tybout, 2001. "Market entry costs, producer heterogeneity and export dynamics," Indian Statistical Institute, Planning Unit, New Delhi Discussion Papers 03-10, Indian Statistical Institute, New Delhi, India.
- Sanghamitra Das & Mark J. Roberts & James R. Tybout, 2001. "Market Entry Costs, Producer Heterogeneity, and Export Dynamics," NBER Working Papers 8629, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
- Alfredo Cuevas & Miguel Messmacher & Alejandro Werner, 2005. "Foreign Direct Investment in Mexico since the Approval of," World Bank Economic Review, World Bank Group, vol. 19(3), pages 473-488.
- Arnold, Jens & Javorcik, Beata S. & Mattoo, Aaditya, 2007.
"Does services liberalization benefit manufacturing firms ? Evidence from the Czech Republic,"
Policy Research Working Paper Series
4109, The World Bank.
- Arnold, Jens M. & Javorcik, Beata S. & Mattoo, Aaditya, 2011. "Does services liberalization benefit manufacturing firms?: Evidence from the Czech Republic," Journal of International Economics, Elsevier, vol. 85(1), pages 136-146, September.
- Horst Raff & Nicolas Schmitt, 2009.
"Imports, Pass-Through, and the Structure of Retail Markets,"
CESifo Working Paper Series
2817, CESifo Group Munich.
- Horst Raff & Nicolas Schmitt, 2009. "Imports, Pass-Through, and the Structure of Retail Markets," Kiel Working Papers 1556, Kiel Institute for the World Economy.
- Silva, Peri, 2011.
"The role of importers and exporters in the determination of the U.S. tariff preferences granted to Latin America,"
Journal of Development Economics,
Elsevier, vol. 94(2), pages 207-219, March.
- Silva, Peri, 2005. "The role of importers and exporters in the determination of the U.S. tariff preferenes granted to Latin America," Policy Research Working Paper Series 3518, The World Bank.
- Kaditi, Eleni A., 2011. "Market Dynamics in Supply Chains: The Impact of Globalisation and Consolidation on Food Companies' Mark-Ups," 2011 International Congress, August 30-September 2, 2011, Zurich, Switzerland 114452, European Association of Agricultural Economists.
- Eleni A Kaditi, 2011. "Market Dynamics in Supply Chains: The Impact of Globalisation and Consolidation on Food Companie's Mark-ups," Working Papers id:4430, eSocialSciences.
- Cédric Durand, 2009. "Wal-Mart en México, una trajectoria exitosa y sus causas," Post-Print hal-00522525, HAL.
- Raff, Horst & Schmitt, Nicolas, 2009.
"Buyer power in international markets,"
Journal of International Economics,
Elsevier, vol. 79(2), pages 222-229, November.
- Horst Raff & Nicolas Schmitt, 2009. "Buyer Power in International Markets," CESifo Working Paper Series 2755, CESifo Group Munich.
- Horst Raff & Nicolas Schmitt, 2007. "Buyer Power in International Markets," Discussion Papers dp07-23, Department of Economics, Simon Fraser University.
- Horst Raff & Nicolas Schmitt, 2008. "Buyer Power in International Markets," Kiel Working Papers 1431, Kiel Institute for the World Economy.
- Emek Basker, 2007.
"The Causes and Consequences of Wal-Mart's Growth,"
Journal of Economic Perspectives,
American Economic Association, vol. 21(3), pages 177-198, Summer.
- Igan, Deniz & Suzuki, Junichi, 2012. "The “Wal-Mart effect” in central and eastern Europe," Journal of Comparative Economics, Elsevier, vol. 40(2), pages 194-210.
For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: ().
If you have authored this item and are not yet registered with RePEc, we encourage you to do it here. This allows to link your profile to this item. It also allows you to accept potential citations to this item that we are uncertain about.
If references are entirely missing, you can add them using this form.
If the full references list an item that is present in RePEc, but the system did not link to it, you can help with this form.
If you know of missing items citing this one, you can help us creating those links by adding the relevant references in the same way as above, for each refering item. If you are a registered author of this item, you may also want to check the "citations" tab in your profile, as there may be some citations waiting for confirmation.
Please note that corrections may take a couple of weeks to filter through the various RePEc services.