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L’inégalité, la pauvreté et l'intégration économique des immigrants au Canada depuis les années 1990

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  • Nong Zhu
  • Cecile Batisse
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    Abstract

    Le changement de la composition ethnique et sociale des immigrants combiné à une segmentation du marché du travail et à un nouvel environnement économique depuis les années 1980 conduit à une nouvelle inégalité des chances sur le marché du travail et à des disparités de performance économique des immigrants. Une partie d’entre eux ne peuvent s’extraire de la pauvreté. À partir de données de recensements, la présente étude vise à analyser ces différentes formes d’inégalité et à en préciser les sources parmi les migrants originaires des pays du Sud au Canada depuis les années 1990. Une discrimination apparaît à travers un niveau de revenu inférieur à celui des autres groupes et une inégalité de revenu plus importante. Par ailleurs, le rendement du capital humain de ces immigrants a diminué entre 1996 et 2006. Enfin, l’analyse souligne le rôle important de l’emploi et des revenus du travail dans l’augmentation du niveau de vie des immigrants. Les politiques visant à améliorer le bien-être social et l’insertion des immigrants doivent donc se centrer sur l’amélioration du niveau de revenu et l’augmentation du taux d’emploi

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    Bibliographic Info

    Paper provided by CIRANO in its series CIRANO Working Papers with number 2014s-10.

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    Date of creation: 01 Jan 2014
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    Handle: RePEc:cir:cirwor:2014s-10

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    Keywords: ; immigrants; Canada; inégalité; capital humain; marché du travail;

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    1. Ravallion, Martin & Shaohua Chen, 2001. "Measuring pro-poor growth," Policy Research Working Paper Series 2666, The World Bank.
    2. Krishna Pendakur & Ravi Pendakur, 1998. "The Colour of Money: Earnings Differentials Among Ethnic Groups in Canada," Canadian Journal of Economics, Canadian Economics Association, vol. 31(3), pages 518-548, August.
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    6. Berube, Charles & Morissette, Rene, 1996. "Aspects longitudinaux de l'inegalite des revenus au Canada," Direction des etudes analytiques : documents de recherche 1996094f, Statistics Canada, Direction des etudes analytiques.
    7. Hou, Feng & Picot, Garnett, 2003. "The Rise in Low-income Rates Among Immigrants in Canada," Analytical Studies Branch Research Paper Series 2003198e, Statistics Canada, Analytical Studies Branch.
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    11. Taryn Ann Galloway & Rolf Aaberge, 2005. "Assimilation effects on poverty among immigrants in Norway," Journal of Population Economics, Springer, vol. 18(4), pages 691-718, November.
    12. Leslie Mccall, 2000. "Explaining levels of within-group wage inequality in U.S. labor markets," Demography, Springer, vol. 37(4), pages 415-430, November.
    13. Smith, James P & Welch, Finis R, 1989. "Black Economic Progress after Myrdal," Journal of Economic Literature, American Economic Association, vol. 27(2), pages 519-64, June.
    14. Oaxaca, Ronald, 1973. "Male-Female Wage Differentials in Urban Labor Markets," International Economic Review, Department of Economics, University of Pennsylvania and Osaka University Institute of Social and Economic Research Association, vol. 14(3), pages 693-709, October.
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