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Do CEOs Exercise Their Stock Options Earlier than Other Executives?

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  • Paul André
  • M. Martin Boyer

    ()

  • Robert Gagné

    ()

Abstract

This paper looks at the timing chosen by CEOs to exercise their stock options and to sell their shares of stock compared to the timing chosen by other top executives in the firm. We first present a model that predicts when CEOs should exercise their options and/or sell their shares, and when other top managers should. Using a tournament approach we find that other top executives should exercise their stock options later than the CEO. We test this model using an unique data set of Canadian companies from 1993 onward. Our results seem to support the theoretical model as non-CEO executives seem to exercise their stock options about a calendar year later than the CEO. Moreover, non-CEO executive a more likely to exercise when a new CEO has been appointed, confirming our tournament model results. Nous étudions dans cet article le moment choisi par le PDG d'une compagnie pour lever ses options ou vendre ses actions dans la compagnie comparativement au moment choisi par les autres hauts dirigeants de la compagnie. Nous présentons premièrement un modèle théorique de tournoi qui fait des prédictions quant au moment opportun pour le PDG et les autres dirigeants de lever leurs options et/ou de vendre leurs actions dans la compagnie. Nous montrons théoriquement dans un tel modèle de tournoi que les hauts dirigeants devraient lever leurs options après le PDG. Nous testons ce modèle en utilisant une base de données unique de compagnies canadiennes de 1993 à 1999. Nos résultats empiriques semblent supporter notre modèle théorique puisque les hauts dirigeants semblent lever leurs options un an plus tard que le PDG. De plus, les hauts dirigeants semblent plus enclins à lever leurs options lorsqu'un nouveau PDG vient d'être nommé, confirmant ainsi notre modèle de tournoi.

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Bibliographic Info

Paper provided by CIRANO in its series CIRANO Working Papers with number 2002s-71.

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Date of creation: 01 Jul 2002
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Handle: RePEc:cir:cirwor:2002s-71

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Keywords: CEO and Executive Compensation; Options; Timing of Exercised Options.; Contributions volontaires; pertes publiques; risque; ambiguïté; données expérimentales;

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References

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  1. Edward P. Lazear & Sherwin Rosen, 1979. "Rank-Order Tournaments as Optimum Labor Contracts," NBER Working Papers 0401, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  2. Kevin J. Murphy & Brian J. Hall, 2000. "Optimal Exercise Prices for Executive Stock Options," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 90(2), pages 209-214, May.
  3. Yermack, David, 1995. "Do corporations award CEO stock options effectively?," Journal of Financial Economics, Elsevier, vol. 39(2-3), pages 237-269.
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  6. Sherwin Rosen, 1985. "Prizes and Incentives in Elimination Tournaments," NBER Working Papers 1668, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  7. Jennifer Carpenter, 1997. "The Exercise and Valuation of Executive Stock Options," New York University, Leonard N. Stern School Finance Department Working Paper Seires 97-10, New York University, Leonard N. Stern School of Business-.
  8. Hemmer, Thomas & Matsunaga, Steve & Shevlin, Terry, 1996. "The influence of risk diversification on the early exercise of employee stock options by executive officers," Journal of Accounting and Economics, Elsevier, vol. 21(1), pages 45-68, February.
  9. Cuny, Charles J. & Jorion, Philippe, 1995. "Valuing executive stock options with endogenous departure," Journal of Accounting and Economics, Elsevier, vol. 20(2), pages 193-205, September.
  10. Healy, Paul M., 1985. "The effect of bonus schemes on accounting decisions," Journal of Accounting and Economics, Elsevier, vol. 7(1-3), pages 85-107, April.
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  12. Huddart, Steven, 1994. "Employee stock options," Journal of Accounting and Economics, Elsevier, vol. 18(2), pages 207-231, September.
  13. Murphy, Kevin J., 1999. "Executive compensation," Handbook of Labor Economics, in: O. Ashenfelter & D. Card (ed.), Handbook of Labor Economics, edition 1, volume 3, chapter 38, pages 2485-2563 Elsevier.
  14. David Yermack, 1996. "Good Timing: CEO Stock Option Awards and Company News Announcements," New York University, Leonard N. Stern School Finance Department Working Paper Seires 96-41, New York University, Leonard N. Stern School of Business-.
  15. Chip Heath & Steven Huddart & Mark Lang, 1999. "Psychological Factors And Stock Option Exercise," The Quarterly Journal of Economics, MIT Press, vol. 114(2), pages 601-627, May.
  16. Parrino, Robert, 1997. "CEO turnover and outside succession A cross-sectional analysis," Journal of Financial Economics, Elsevier, vol. 46(2), pages 165-197, November.
  17. Chan, William, 1996. "External Recruitment versus Internal Promotion," Journal of Labor Economics, University of Chicago Press, vol. 14(4), pages 555-70, October.
  18. Smith, C.W. & Watts, R.L., 1992. "The Investment Oppotunity set and Corporate Financing, Dividend and Compensation Policies," Papers 92-02, Rochester, Business - Financial Research and Policy Studies.
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Cited by:
  1. Hamza Bahaji, 2009. "Contribution à l'analyse des déterminants du comportement d'exercice des porteurs de stock options : une étude empirique sur le marché Américain," Working Papers halshs-00512840, HAL.
  2. Jonathan Ingersoll, 2002. "The Subjective and Objective Evaluation of Incentive Stock Options," Yale School of Management Working Papers ysm276, Yale School of Management, revised 01 Jul 2003.

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