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Intergenerational Risk-Sharing and Risk-Taking of a Pension Fund

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  • Christian Gollier

Abstract

By using their financial reserves efficiently, pension funds can smooth shocks on asset returns, and can thus facilitate intergenerational risk-sharing. In addition to the primary benefit of improved time diversification, this form of risk allocation affords the additional benefit of allowing these funds to take better advantage of the equity premium, which also favors the consumers. In this paper, our aim is twofold. First, we characterize the socially efficient policy rules of a collective pension plan in terms of portfolio management, capital payments to retirees, and dividend payments to shareholders. We examine both the first-best rules and the second-best rules, where, in the latter case, the fund is constrained by a solvency ratio and by a guaranteed minimum return to workers’ contributions. Second, we measure the social surplus of the system compared to a situation in which each generation would save and invest in isolation for its own retirement. One of the main results of the paper is that better intergenerational risk-sharing does not reduce the risk born by each generation. Rather, it increases the expected return to the workers’ contributions.

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File URL: http://www.cesifo-group.de/portal/page/portal/DocBase_Content/WP/WP-CESifo_Working_Papers/wp-cesifo-2007/wp-cesifo-2007-04/cesifo1_wp1969.pdf
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Bibliographic Info

Paper provided by CESifo Group Munich in its series CESifo Working Paper Series with number 1969.

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Date of creation: 2007
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Handle: RePEc:ces:ceswps:_1969

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Keywords: dynamic portfolio choice; pension; retirement; intergenerational risk sharing; financial intermediation;

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References

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  1. Coen N. Teulings & Casper G. de Vries, 2003. "Generational Accounting, Solidarity and Pension Losses," Tinbergen Institute Discussion Papers 03-094/3, Tinbergen Institute.
  2. Epstein, Larry G., 1983. "Decreasing absolute risk aversion and utility indices derived from cake-eating problems," Journal of Economic Theory, Elsevier, vol. 29(2), pages 245-264, April.
  3. Zvi Bodie & Robert C. Merton & William F. Samuelson, 1992. "Labor Supply Flexibility and Portfolio Choice in a Life-Cycle Model," NBER Working Papers 3954, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  4. Deaton, A., 1989. "Saving And Liquidity Constraints," Papers 153, Princeton, Woodrow Wilson School - Public and International Affairs.
  5. Piero Gottardi & Felix Kubler, 2009. "Social Security and Risk Sharing," Economics Working Papers ECO2009/12, European University Institute.
  6. Dirk Krueger & Felix Kubler, 2006. "Pareto-Improving Social Security Reform when Financial Markets are Incomplete!?," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 96(3), pages 737-755, June.
  7. Diamond, P. A., 1977. "A framework for social security analysis," Journal of Public Economics, Elsevier, vol. 8(3), pages 275-298, December.
  8. Bohn, Henning, 2009. "Intergenerational risk sharing and fiscal policy," Journal of Monetary Economics, Elsevier, vol. 56(6), pages 805-816, September.
  9. Salvador Valdés-Prieto, 2005. "Securitization of taxes implicit in PAYG pensions," Economic Policy, CEPR & CES & MSH, vol. 20(42), pages 215-265, 04.
  10. Roger H. Gordon & Hal R. Varian, 1985. "Intergenerational Risk Sharing," NBER Working Papers 1730, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  11. Robert J. Shiller, 1998. "Social Security and Institutions for Intergenerational, Intragenerational, and International Risk Sharing," NBER Working Papers 6641, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  12. Gabrielle Demange, 2001. "On optimality in intergenerational risk sharing," Post-Print halshs-00581414, HAL.
  13. James Poterba & Joshua Rauh & Steven Venti & David Wise, 2003. "Utility Evaluation of Risk in Retirement Saving Accounts," NBER Working Papers 9892, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  14. Gary Burtless, 2000. "Social Security Privatization and Financial Market Risk: Lessons from U.S. Financial History," Discussion Papers of DIW Berlin 211, DIW Berlin, German Institute for Economic Research.
  15. Samuelson, Paul A, 1969. "Lifetime Portfolio Selection by Dynamic Stochastic Programming," The Review of Economics and Statistics, MIT Press, vol. 51(3), pages 239-46, August.
  16. Gollier, Christian, 2005. "Optimal Portfolio Management for Individual Pension Plans," IDEI Working Papers 298, Institut d'Économie Industrielle (IDEI), Toulouse.
  17. Gollier, Christian, 2002. "Time diversification, liquidity constraints, and decreasing aversion to risk on wealth," Journal of Monetary Economics, Elsevier, vol. 49(7), pages 1439-1459, October.
  18. Cui, Jiajia & Jong, Frank De & Ponds, Eduard, 2011. "Intergenerational risk sharing within funded pension schemes," Journal of Pension Economics and Finance, Cambridge University Press, vol. 10(01), pages 1-29, January.
  19. De Menil, Georges & Murtin, Fabrice & Sheshinski, Eytan, 2006. "Planning for the optimal mix of paygo tax and funded savings," Journal of Pension Economics and Finance, Cambridge University Press, vol. 5(01), pages 1-25, March.
  20. Demange, G. & Laroque, G., 1996. "Social Security and Demographic Shocks," DELTA Working Papers 96-04, DELTA (Ecole normale supérieure).
  21. Merton, Robert C, 1969. "Lifetime Portfolio Selection under Uncertainty: The Continuous-Time Case," The Review of Economics and Statistics, MIT Press, vol. 51(3), pages 247-57, August.
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Blog mentions

As found by EconAcademics.org, the blog aggregator for Economics research:
  1. De economie van Poolexpedities
    by Thijs in eco.nomie.nl on 2009-09-16 12:42:23
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Cited by:
  1. Arjen Siegmann, 2008. "Minimum Funding Ratios for Defined-Benefit Pension Funds," DNB Working Papers 180, Netherlands Central Bank, Research Department.
  2. Hippolyte d’Albis & Johanna Etner, 2013. "Illiquid Life Annuities," EconomiX Working Papers 2013-30, University of Paris West - Nanterre la Défense, EconomiX.
  3. Damiaan H.J. Chen & Roel Beetsma & Eduard Ponds & Ward E. Romp, 2014. "Intergenerational Risk-Sharing through Funded Pensions and Public Debt," CESifo Working Paper Series 4624, CESifo Group Munich.
  4. Gabay, Daniel & Grasselli, Martino, 2012. "Fair demographic risk sharing in defined contribution pension systems," Journal of Economic Dynamics and Control, Elsevier, vol. 36(4), pages 657-669.
  5. Jacob A. Bikker & Dirk W.G.A. Broeders & David A. Hollanders & Eduard H.M. Ponds, 2009. "Pension funds' asset allocation and participant age: a test of the life-cycle model," DNB Working Papers 223, Netherlands Central Bank, Research Department.
  6. Jan Bonenkamp, 2009. "Measuring Lifetime Redistribution in Dutch Occupational Pensions," De Economist, Springer, vol. 157(1), pages 49-77, March.
  7. Roel Beetsma & Ward Romp & Siert J. Vos, 2011. "Voluntary Participation and Intergenerational Risk Sharing in a Funded Pension System," Tinbergen Institute Discussion Papers 11-056/2/DSF19, Tinbergen Institute.
  8. Lijian Wang & Daniel Béland, 2014. "Assessing the Financial Sustainability of China’s Rural Pension System," Sustainability, MDPI, Open Access Journal, vol. 6(6), pages 3271-3290, May.
  9. Noël Bonneuil, 2013. "Early Warning to Insolvency in the Pension Fund: The French Case," Risks, MDPI, Open Access Journal, vol. 1(1), pages 1-13, January.
  10. Bovenberg, A.L. & Ewijk, C. van, 2011. "Private pensions in Europe," Open Access publications from Tilburg University urn:nbn:nl:ui:12-5234269, Tilburg University.
  11. Hoevenaars, Roy P.M.M. & Ponds, Eduard H.M., 2008. "Valuation of intergenerational transfers in funded collective pension schemes," Insurance: Mathematics and Economics, Elsevier, vol. 42(2), pages 578-593, April.
  12. Javed I. Ahmed & Brad M. Barber & Terrance Odean, 2013. "Made poorer by choice: worker outcomes in Social Security v. private retirement accounts," Finance and Economics Discussion Series 2013-23, Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System (U.S.).
  13. Goecke, Oskar, 2013. "Pension saving schemes with return smoothing mechanism," Insurance: Mathematics and Economics, Elsevier, vol. 53(3), pages 678-689.
  14. Mehlkopf, R.J., 2011. "Risk sharing with the unborn," Open Access publications from Tilburg University urn:nbn:nl:ui:12-4960700, Tilburg University.
  15. Broeders, Dirk & Chen, An & Koos, Birgit, 2011. "A utility-based comparison of pension funds and life insurance companies under regulatory constraints," Insurance: Mathematics and Economics, Elsevier, vol. 49(1), pages 1-10, July.
  16. Robert Novy-Marx & Joshua D. Rauh, 2009. "The Liabilities and Risks of State-Sponsored Pension Plans," Journal of Economic Perspectives, American Economic Association, vol. 23(4), pages 191-210, Fall.
  17. repec:dgr:uvatin:2011056 is not listed on IDEAS
  18. Roel Beetsma & Ward Romp, 2013. "Participation Constraints in Pension Systems," Tinbergen Institute Discussion Papers 13-149/VI, Tinbergen Institute.

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