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Intergenerational Risk-Sharing and Risk-Taking of a Pension Fund

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  • Christian Gollier

Abstract

By using their financial reserves efficiently, pension funds can smooth shocks on asset returns, and can thus facilitate intergenerational risk-sharing. In addition to the primary benefit of improved time diversification, this form of risk allocation affords the additional benefit of allowing these funds to take better advantage of the equity premium, which also favors the consumers. In this paper, our aim is twofold. First, we characterize the socially efficient policy rules of a collective pension plan in terms of portfolio management, capital payments to retirees, and dividend payments to shareholders. We examine both the first-best rules and the second-best rules, where, in the latter case, the fund is constrained by a solvency ratio and by a guaranteed minimum return to workers’ contributions. Second, we measure the social surplus of the system compared to a situation in which each generation would save and invest in isolation for its own retirement. One of the main results of the paper is that better intergenerational risk-sharing does not reduce the risk born by each generation. Rather, it increases the expected return to the workers’ contributions.

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File URL: http://www.cesifo-group.de/portal/page/portal/DocBase_Content/WP/WP-CESifo_Working_Papers/wp-cesifo-2007/wp-cesifo-2007-04/cesifo1_wp1969.pdf
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Bibliographic Info

Paper provided by CESifo Group Munich in its series CESifo Working Paper Series with number 1969.

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Date of creation: 2007
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Handle: RePEc:ces:ceswps:_1969

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Related research

Keywords: dynamic portfolio choice; pension; retirement; intergenerational risk sharing; financial intermediation;

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References

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  1. Zvi Bodie & Robert C. Merton & William F. Samuelson, 1992. "Labor Supply Flexibility and Portfolio Choice in a Life-Cycle Model," NBER Working Papers 3954, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  2. Felix Kubler & Department of Economics & Department of Economics & Piero Gottardi, 2007. "Social Security and RIsk Sharing," 2007 Meeting Papers 625, Society for Economic Dynamics.
  3. Bohn, Henning, 2009. "Intergenerational risk sharing and fiscal policy," Journal of Monetary Economics, Elsevier, vol. 56(6), pages 805-816, September.
  4. Krüger, Dirk & Kubler, Felix, 2005. "Pareto Improving Social Security Reform when Financial Markets Are Incomplete," CEPR Discussion Papers 5039, C.E.P.R. Discussion Papers.
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  8. Gollier, Christian, 2002. "Time diversification, liquidity constraints, and decreasing aversion to risk on wealth," Journal of Monetary Economics, Elsevier, vol. 49(7), pages 1439-1459, October.
  9. Gabrielle Demange & Guy Laroque, 1999. "Social Security and Demographic Shocks," Econometrica, Econometric Society, vol. 67(3), pages 527-542, May.
  10. James M. Poterba & Joshua Rauh & Steven F. Venti, 2005. "Utility Evaluation of Risk in Retirement Saving Accounts," NBER Chapters, in: Analyses in the Economics of Aging, pages 13-58 National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  11. De Menil, Georges & Murtin, Fabrice & Sheshinski, Eytan, 2006. "Planning for the optimal mix of paygo tax and funded savings," Journal of Pension Economics and Finance, Cambridge University Press, vol. 5(01), pages 1-25, March.
  12. Epstein, Larry G., 1983. "Decreasing absolute risk aversion and utility indices derived from cake-eating problems," Journal of Economic Theory, Elsevier, vol. 29(2), pages 245-264, April.
  13. Coen N. Teulings & Casper G. de Vries, 2003. "Generational Accounting, Solidarity and Pension Losses," Tinbergen Institute Discussion Papers 03-094/3, Tinbergen Institute.
  14. Merton, Robert C, 1969. "Lifetime Portfolio Selection under Uncertainty: The Continuous-Time Case," The Review of Economics and Statistics, MIT Press, vol. 51(3), pages 247-57, August.
  15. Gabrielle Demange, 2001. "On optimality in intergenerational risk sharing," Post-Print halshs-00581414, HAL.
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  17. Gary Burtless, 2000. "Social Security Privatization and Financial Market Risk: Lessons from U.S. Financial History," Discussion Papers of DIW Berlin 211, DIW Berlin, German Institute for Economic Research.
  18. Christian Gollier, 2005. "Optimal Portfolio Management for Individual Pension Plans," CESifo Working Paper Series 1394, CESifo Group Munich.
  19. Cui, Jiajia & Jong, Frank De & Ponds, Eduard, 2011. "Intergenerational risk sharing within funded pension schemes," Journal of Pension Economics and Finance, Cambridge University Press, vol. 10(01), pages 1-29, January.
  20. Diamond, P. A., 1977. "A framework for social security analysis," Journal of Public Economics, Elsevier, vol. 8(3), pages 275-298, December.
  21. Roger H. Gordon & Hal R. Varian, 1985. "Intergenerational Risk Sharing," NBER Working Papers 1730, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
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Citations

Blog mentions

As found by EconAcademics.org, the blog aggregator for Economics research:
  1. De economie van Poolexpedities
    by Thijs in eco.nomie.nl on 2009-09-16 12:42:23
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Cited by:
  1. Jacob A. Bikker & Dirk W.G.A. Broeders & David A. Hollanders & Eduard H.M. Ponds, 2009. "Pension funds' asset allocation and participant age: a test of the life-cycle model," DNB Working Papers 223, Netherlands Central Bank, Research Department.
  2. Jan Bonenkamp, 2009. "Measuring Lifetime Redistribution in Dutch Occupational Pensions," De Economist, Springer, vol. 157(1), pages 49-77, March.
  3. Siegmann, Arjen, 2011. "Minimum funding ratios for defined-benefit pension funds," Journal of Pension Economics and Finance, Cambridge University Press, vol. 10(03), pages 417-434, July.
  4. repec:dgr:uvatin:2011056 is not listed on IDEAS
  5. Bovenberg, A.L. & Ewijk, C. van, 2011. "Private pensions in Europe," Open Access publications from Tilburg University urn:nbn:nl:ui:12-5234269, Tilburg University.
  6. Broeders, Dirk & Chen, An & Koos, Birgit, 2011. "A utility-based comparison of pension funds and life insurance companies under regulatory constraints," Insurance: Mathematics and Economics, Elsevier, vol. 49(1), pages 1-10, July.
  7. Goecke, Oskar, 2013. "Pension saving schemes with return smoothing mechanism," Insurance: Mathematics and Economics, Elsevier, vol. 53(3), pages 678-689.
  8. Hippolyte d’Albis & Johanna Etner, 2013. "Illiquid Life Annuities," EconomiX Working Papers 2013-30, University of Paris West - Nanterre la Défense, EconomiX.
  9. Roel Beetsma & Ward Romp & Siert J. Vos, 2011. "Voluntary Participation and Intergenerational Risk Sharing in a Funded Pension System," Tinbergen Institute Discussion Papers 11-056/2/DSF19, Tinbergen Institute.
  10. Gabay, Daniel & Grasselli, Martino, 2012. "Fair demographic risk sharing in defined contribution pension systems," Journal of Economic Dynamics and Control, Elsevier, vol. 36(4), pages 657-669.
  11. Robert Novy-Marx & Joshua D. Rauh, 2009. "The Liabilities and Risks of State-Sponsored Pension Plans," Journal of Economic Perspectives, American Economic Association, vol. 23(4), pages 191-210, Fall.
  12. Damiaan H.J. Chen & Roel Beetsma & Eduard Ponds & Ward E. Romp, 2014. "Intergenerational Risk-Sharing through Funded Pensions and Public Debt," CESifo Working Paper Series 4624, CESifo Group Munich.
  13. Javed I. Ahmed & Brad M. Barber & Terrance Odean, 2013. "Made poorer by choice: worker outcomes in Social Security v. private retirement accounts," Finance and Economics Discussion Series 2013-23, Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System (U.S.).
  14. Roel Beetsma & Ward Romp, 2013. "Participation Constraints in Pension Systems," Tinbergen Institute Discussion Papers 13-149/VI, Tinbergen Institute.
  15. Hoevenaars, Roy P.M.M. & Ponds, Eduard H.M., 2008. "Valuation of intergenerational transfers in funded collective pension schemes," Insurance: Mathematics and Economics, Elsevier, vol. 42(2), pages 578-593, April.
  16. Mehlkopf, R.J., 2011. "Risk sharing with the unborn," Open Access publications from Tilburg University urn:nbn:nl:ui:12-4960700, Tilburg University.
  17. Noël Bonneuil, 2013. "Early Warning to Insolvency in the Pension Fund: The French Case," Risks, MDPI, Open Access Journal, vol. 1(1), pages 1-13, January.

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