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Survival Patterns Among Newcomers to Franchising

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  • Timothy Bates

Abstract

This study analyzes survival patterns among franchisee firms and establishments that began operations in 1986 and 1987. Differing methodologies and data bases are utilized to demonstrate that 1) franchises have higher survival rates than independents, and 2) franchises have lower survival rates than independent business formations. Analyses of corporate establishment data generate high franchisee survival rates relative to independents, while analyses of young firm data generate the opposite pattern. In either case, the franchise trait is one of several determinants of survival prospects. The larger-scale, more established firms consistently stay in operation more frequently than smaller-scale, younger firms. Analysis of all corporate establishment restaurant units opened in 1986 or 1987 that use paid employees in 1987 helps to reconcile the seeming inconsistencies reported above. Most of the young franchisee units were not owned by young firms: rather, their parents were multi-establishment franchisees, and most of them were mature firms. Among the true newcomers, franchise survival rates are low; among the entrenched multi-establishment franchisees, survival rates were high.

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Bibliographic Info

Paper provided by Center for Economic Studies, U.S. Census Bureau in its series Working Papers with number 97-1.

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Date of creation: Jan 1997
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Handle: RePEc:cen:wpaper:97-1

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Keywords: CES; economic; research; micro; data; microdata; chief; economist;

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  1. Jensen, Michael C. & Meckling, William H., 1976. "Theory of the firm: Managerial behavior, agency costs and ownership structure," Journal of Financial Economics, Elsevier, vol. 3(4), pages 305-360, October.
  2. Rubin, Paul H, 1978. "The Theory of the Firm and the Structure of the Franchise Contract," Journal of Law and Economics, University of Chicago Press, vol. 21(1), pages 223-33, April.
  3. Kaufmann, Patrick J. & Dant, Rajiv P., 1996. "Multi-unit franchising: Growth and management issues," Journal of Business Venturing, Elsevier, vol. 11(5), pages 343-358, September.
  4. Mathewson, G Frank & Winter, Ralph A, 1985. "The Economics of Franchise Contracts," Journal of Law and Economics, University of Chicago Press, vol. 28(3), pages 503-26, October.
  5. Bates, Timothy, 1990. "Entrepreneur Human Capital Inputs and Small Business Longevity," The Review of Economics and Statistics, MIT Press, vol. 72(4), pages 551-59, November.
  6. Lafontaine, Francine & Bhattacharyya, Sugato, 1995. "The role of risk in franchising," Journal of Corporate Finance, Elsevier, vol. 2(1-2), pages 39-74, October.
  7. Jovanovic, Boyan, 1982. "Selection and the Evolution of Industry," Econometrica, Econometric Society, vol. 50(3), pages 649-70, May.
  8. Alfred R Nucci, 1992. "The Characteristics of Business Owners Database," Working Papers 92-7, Center for Economic Studies, U.S. Census Bureau.
  9. Alfred R Nucci & Timothy Bates, 1990. "An Analysis of Small Business Size and Rate of Discontinuance," Working Papers 90-2, Center for Economic Studies, U.S. Census Bureau.
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Cited by:
  1. Stanworth, John & Curran, James, 1999. "Colas, burgers, shakes, and shirkers: Towards a sociological model of franchising in the market economy," Journal of Business Venturing, Elsevier, vol. 14(4), pages 323-344, July.
  2. Bradley, Steven W. & Wiklund, Johan & Shepherd, Dean A., 2011. "Swinging a double-edged sword: The effect of slack on entrepreneurial management and growth," Journal of Business Venturing, Elsevier, vol. 26(5), pages 537-554, September.
  3. Frazer, Lorelle & Winzar, Hume, 2005. "Exits and expectations: why disappointed franchisees leave," Journal of Business Research, Elsevier, vol. 58(11), pages 1534-1542, November.
  4. Holmberg, Stevan R. & Morgan, Kathryn Boe, 2003. "Franchise turnover and failure: New research and perspectives," Journal of Business Venturing, Elsevier, vol. 18(3), pages 403-418, May.
  5. Aki Kangasharju & Sari Pekkala, 2001. "The Role of Education in Self-Employment Success," Studies in Economics 0116, Department of Economics, University of Kent.
  6. Westhead, Paul & Wright, Mike & Ucbasaran, Deniz, 2001. "The internationalization of new and small firms: A resource-based view," Journal of Business Venturing, Elsevier, vol. 16(4), pages 333-358, July.
  7. Garg, Viany K. & Rasheed, Abdul A., 2003. "International multi-unit franchising: an agency theoretic explanation," International Business Review, Elsevier, vol. 12(3), pages 329-348, June.
  8. Gary Castrogiovanni & Robert Justis, 2007. "Franchise failure: a reassessment of the Bates (1995) results," Service Business, Springer, vol. 1(3), pages 247-256, September.
  9. Andrew Eckert & Douglas West, 2008. "Firm Survival and Chain Growth in a Privatized Retail Liquor Store Industry," Review of Industrial Organization, Springer, vol. 32(1), pages 1-18, February.
  10. Hannu Niittykangas & Hannu Tervo, 2005. "Spatial variations in intergenerational transmission of self-employment," Regional Studies, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 39(3), pages 319-332.

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