Does macropru leak? Evidence from a UK policy experiment
AbstractThe regulation of bank capital to improve the resilience of the financial system and, related to this aim, as a means of smoothing the credit cycle are central elements of forthcoming macroprudential regimes internationally. For such regulation to be effective in controlling the aggregate supply of credit: (i) changes in capital requirements need to affect loan supply by regulated banks, and (ii) substitute sources of credit should not fully offset changes in credit supply by affected banks. This paper examines micro evidence—lacking to date—on both questions, using a unique data set. In the United Kingdom, regulators have imposed time-varying, bank-specific minimum capital requirements since Basel I. Over the 1998-2007 period, UK-regulated banks reduced lending in response to tighter capital requirements. But non UK-regulated banks (resident foreign branches) increased lending in response to tighter capital requirements on a relevant reference group of regulated banks. This ‘leakage’ was material although only partial: it offset—by about one third—the initial impulse from the regulatory change. These results suggest that, on balance, changes in capital requirements can have a substantial impact on aggregate credit supply by UK-resident banks. But they also affirm the importance of cross-country co-operation on macroprudential policies.
Download InfoIf you experience problems downloading a file, check if you have the proper application to view it first. In case of further problems read the IDEAS help page. Note that these files are not on the IDEAS site. Please be patient as the files may be large.
Bibliographic InfoPaper provided by Bank of England in its series Bank of England working papers with number 445.
Length: 45 pages
Date of creation: 27 Jan 2012
Date of revision:
Contact details of provider:
Postal: Publications Group Bank of England Threadneedle Street London EC2R 8AH
Phone: +44 (0)171 601 4030
Fax: +44 (0)171 601 5196
Web page: http://www.bankofengland.co.uk/
More information through EDIRC
Macroprudential regulation; credit cycles; regulatory arbitrage; transmission mechanism; bank lending; instrumental variables;
Other versions of this item:
- Shekhar Aiyar & Charles W. Calomiris & Tomasz Wieladek, 2012. "Does Macro-Pru Leak? Evidence from a UK Policy Experiment," NBER Working Papers 17822, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
- E32 - Macroeconomics and Monetary Economics - - Prices, Business Fluctuations, and Cycles - - - Business Fluctuations; Cycles
- E51 - Macroeconomics and Monetary Economics - - Monetary Policy, Central Banking, and the Supply of Money and Credit - - - Money Supply; Credit; Money Multipliers
- F30 - International Economics - - International Finance - - - General
- G21 - Financial Economics - - Financial Institutions and Services - - - Banks; Other Depository Institutions; Micro Finance Institutions; Mortgages
- G28 - Financial Economics - - Financial Institutions and Services - - - Government Policy and Regulation
Please report citation or reference errors to , or , if you are the registered author of the cited work, log in to your RePEc Author Service profile, click on "citations" and make appropriate adjustments.:
- Fabio C. Bagliano & Carlo A. Favero, .
"Measuring Monetary Policy with VAR Models: an Evaluation,"
132, IGIER (Innocenzo Gasparini Institute for Economic Research), Bocconi University.
- Bagliano, Fabio C. & Favero, Carlo A., 1998. "Measuring monetary policy with VAR models: An evaluation," European Economic Review, Elsevier, vol. 42(6), pages 1069-1112, June.
- Bagliano, Fabio-Cesare & Favero, Carlo A, 1997. "Measuring Monetary Policy with VAR Models: An Evaluation," CEPR Discussion Papers 1743, C.E.P.R. Discussion Papers.
- Ilzetzki, Ethan & Mendoza, Enrique G. & Végh, Carlos A., 2013.
"How big (small?) are fiscal multipliers?,"
Journal of Monetary Economics,
Elsevier, vol. 60(2), pages 239-254.
- Ethan Ilzetzki & Enrique G. Mendoza & Carlos A. VÃ©gh Gramont, 2011. "How Big (Small?) are Fiscal Multipliers?," IMF Working Papers 11/52, International Monetary Fund.
- Ethan Ilzetzki & Enrique G. Mendoza & Carlos A. Végh, 2010. "How Big (Small?) are Fiscal Multipliers?," CEP Discussion Papers dp1016, Centre for Economic Performance, LSE.
- Ethan Ilzetzki & Enrique G. Mendoza & Carlos A. Végh, 2010. "How Big (Small?) are Fiscal Multipliers?," NBER Working Papers 16479, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
- Katrin Assenmacher-Wesche & Stefan Gerlach, 2008.
"Financial Structure and the Impact of Monetary Policy on Asset Prices,"
2008-16, Swiss National Bank.
- Gerlach, Stefan & Assenmacher-Wesche, Katrin, 2008. "Financial structure and the impact of monetary policy on asset prices," CFS Working Paper Series 2008/30, Center for Financial Studies (CFS).
- Alessandro Rebucci, 2003. "On the Heterogeneity Bias of Pooled Estimators in Stationary VAR Specifications," IMF Working Papers 03/73, International Monetary Fund.
- Martin CihÃ¡k & Klaus Schaeck, 2007. "Banking Competition and Capital Ratios," IMF Working Papers 07/216, International Monetary Fund.
- Charles Calomiris & Joseph Mason, 2004.
"Credit Card Securitization and Regulatory Arbitrage,"
Journal of Financial Services Research,
Springer, vol. 26(1), pages 5-27, August.
- Charles W. Calomiris & Joseph R. Mason, 2003. "Credit card securitization and regulatory arbitrage," Working Papers 03-7, Federal Reserve Bank of Philadelphia.
- Richard Blundell & Steve Bond, 1995.
"Initial conditions and moment restrictions in dynamic panel data models,"
IFS Working Papers
W95/17, Institute for Fiscal Studies.
- Blundell, Richard & Bond, Stephen, 1998. "Initial conditions and moment restrictions in dynamic panel data models," Journal of Econometrics, Elsevier, vol. 87(1), pages 115-143, August.
- Blundell, R. & Bond, S., 1995. "Initial Conditions and Moment Restrictions in Dynamic Panel Data Models," Economics Papers 104, Economics Group, Nuffield College, University of Oxford.
- R Blundell & Steven Bond, . "Initial conditions and moment restrictions in dynamic panel data model," Economics Papers W14&104., Economics Group, Nuffield College, University of Oxford.
- Gabriel Jiménez & Steven Ongena & José-Luis Peydró & Jesús Saurina, 2012.
"Macroprudential policy, countercyclical bank capital buffers and credit supply: Evidence from the Spanish dynamic provisioning experiments,"
Economics Working Papers
1315, Department of Economics and Business, Universitat Pompeu Fabra, revised Feb 2013.
- Gabriel Jiménez & Steven Ongena & José-Luis Peydró & Jesús Saurina, 2012. "Macroprudential policy, countercyclical bank capital buffers and credit supply: Evidence from the Spanish dynamic provisioning experiments," Working Paper Research 231, National Bank of Belgium.
- Jiménez, G. & Ongena, S. & Peydro, J.L. & Saurina, J., 2012. "Macroprudential Policy, Countercyclical Bank Capital Buffers and Credit Supply: Evidence from the Spanish Dynamic Provisioning Experiments," Discussion Paper 2012-036, Tilburg University, Center for Economic Research.
- Gabriel Jiménez & Steven Ongena & José-Luis Peydró & Jesús Saurina, 2012. "Macroprudential Policy, Countercyclical Bank Capital Buffers and Credit Supply: Evidence from the Spanish Dynamic Provisioning Experiments," Working Papers 628, Barcelona Graduate School of Economics.
- Acharya, Viral V. & Almeida, Heitor & Campello, Murillo, 2007.
"Is cash negative debt? A hedging perspective on corporate financial policies,"
Journal of Financial Intermediation,
Elsevier, vol. 16(4), pages 515-554, October.
- Viral V. Acharya & Heitor Almeida & Murillo Campello, 2005. "Is Cash Negative Debt? A Hedging Perspective on Corporate Financial Policies," NBER Working Papers 11391, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
- Acharya, Viral V & Almeida, Heitor & Campello, Murillo, 2005. "Is Cash Negative Debt? A Hedging Perspective on Corporate Financial Policies," CEPR Discussion Papers 4886, C.E.P.R. Discussion Papers.
- Pascal Towbin, Sebastian Weber, 2010. "Limits of Floats: The Role of Foreign Currency Debt and Import Structure," IHEID Working Papers 01-2010, Economics Section, The Graduate Institute of International Studies, revised Jan 2010.
- Pesaran, M.H. & Smith, R., 1992.
"Estimating Long-Run Relationships From Dynamic Heterogeneous Panels,"
Cambridge Working Papers in Economics
9215, Faculty of Economics, University of Cambridge.
- Pesaran, M. Hashem & Smith, Ron, 1995. "Estimating long-run relationships from dynamic heterogeneous panels," Journal of Econometrics, Elsevier, vol. 68(1), pages 79-113, July.
- William Francis & Matthew Osborne, 2009. "Bank regulation, capital and credit supply: Measuring the Impact of Prudential Standards," Occasional Papers 36, Financial Services Authority.
- David Miles & Jing Yang & Gilberto Marcheggiano, 2013.
"Optimal Bank Capital,"
Royal Economic Society, vol. 123(567), pages 1-37, 03.
- Repullo, R. & Suarez, J., 2010.
"The Procyclical Effects of Bank Capital Regulation,"
2010-29S, Tilburg University, Center for Economic Research.
- Rafael Repullo & Javier Suarez, 2013. "The Procyclical Effects of Bank Capital Regulation," Review of Financial Studies, Society for Financial Studies, vol. 26(2), pages 452-490.
- Repullo, Rafael & Suarez, Javier, 2012. "The Procyclical Effects of Bank Capital Regulation," CEPR Discussion Papers 8897, C.E.P.R. Discussion Papers.
- Rafael Repullo & Javier Suarez, 2012. "The Procyclical Effects Of Bank Capital Regulation," Working Papers wp2012_1202, CEMFI.
- Gambacorta, Leonardo & Mistrulli, Paolo Emilio, 2004. "Does bank capital affect lending behavior?," Journal of Financial Intermediation, Elsevier, vol. 13(4), pages 436-457, October.
- Stock, James H & Wright, Jonathan H & Yogo, Motohiro, 2002. "A Survey of Weak Instruments and Weak Identification in Generalized Method of Moments," Journal of Business & Economic Statistics, American Statistical Association, vol. 20(4), pages 518-29, October.
- Sa, Filipa & Towbin, Pascal & wieladek, tomasz, 2011.
"Low interest rates and housing booms: the role of capital inflows, monetary policy and financial innovation,"
Bank of England working papers
411, Bank of England.
- Filipa Sá & Pascal Towbin & Tomasz Wieladek, 2011. "Low interest rates and housing booms: the role of capital inflows, monetary policy and financial innovation," Globalization and Monetary Policy Institute Working Paper 79, Federal Reserve Bank of Dallas.
- Frederick T. Furlong, 1992. "Capital regulation and bank lending," Economic Review, Federal Reserve Bank of San Francisco, pages 23-33.
- James H. Stock & Motohiro Yogo, 2002. "Testing for Weak Instruments in Linear IV Regression," NBER Technical Working Papers 0284, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
- Joseph G. Haubrich & Paul Wachtel, 1993. "Capital requirements and shifts in commercial bank portfolios," Economic Review, Federal Reserve Bank of Cleveland, issue Q III, pages 2-15.
- Aiyar, Shekhar, 2011. "How did the crisis in international funding markets affect bank lending? Balance sheet evidence from the United Kingdom," Bank of England working papers 424, Bank of England.
- Alfredo Martín-Oliver & Sonia Ruano & Vicente Salas-Fumás, 2012. "Effects of equity capital on the interest rate and the demand for credit. Empirical evidence from Spanish banks," Banco de Espaï¿½a Working Papers 1218, Banco de Espa�a.
- Antoniades, Adonis, 2013. "Liquidity Risk and the Credit Crunch of 2007-2009: Evidence from Micro-Level Data on Mortgage Loan Applications," MPRA Paper 49270, University Library of Munich, Germany.
- Alfredo Martin-Oliver & Sonia Ruano & Vicente Salas-Fumas, 2013. "Banks' Equity Capital Frictions, Capital Ratios, and Interest Rates: Evidence from Spanish Banks," International Journal of Central Banking, International Journal of Central Banking, vol. 9(1), pages 183-225, March.
- Claudia M. Buch & Esteban Prieto, 2012.
"Do Better Capitalized Banks Lend Less? Long-Run Panel Evidence from Germany,"
IAW Discussion Papers
84, Institut für Angewandte Wirtschaftsforschung (IAW).
- Buch, Claudia M. & Prieto, Esteban, 2012. "Do better capitalized banks lend less? Long-run panel evidence from Germany," University of Tuebingen Working Papers in Economics and Finance 37, University of Tuebingen, Faculty of Economics and Social Sciences.
- Claudia M. Buch & Esteban Prieto, 2012. "Do Better Capitalized Banks Lend Less? Long-Run Panel Evidence from Germany," CESifo Working Paper Series 3836, CESifo Group Munich.
- Shekhar Aiyar, 2012. "From Financial Crisis to Great Recession: The Role of Globalized Banks," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 102(3), pages 225-30, May.
- Ono, Arito & Uchida, Hirofumi & Udell, Gregory & Uesugi, Iichiro, 2013. "A Close Look at Loan-To-Value Ratios: Evidence from the Japanese Real Estate Market," Working Paper Series 19, Center for Interfirm Network, Institute of Economic Research, Hitotsubashi University.
- Seung Jung Lee & Viktors Stebunovs, 2012. "Bank capital ratios and the structure of nonfinancial industries," Finance and Economics Discussion Series 2012-53, Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System (U.S.).
- Paolo Angelini & Sergio Nicoletti-Altimari & Ignazio Visco, 2012. "Macroprudential, microprudential and monetary policies: conflicts, complementarities and trade-offs," Questioni di Economia e Finanza (Occasional Papers) 140, Bank of Italy, Economic Research and International Relations Area.
- R. Glenn Hubbard, 2013. "Financial regulatory reform: a progress report," Review, Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis, issue May, pages 181-198.
- Bank for International Settlements, 2012. "Operationalising the selection and application of macroprudential instruments," CGFS Papers, Bank for International Settlements, number 48, October.
For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: (Publications Team).
If references are entirely missing, you can add them using this form.