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Colombian and South American Immigrants in the United States of America: Education Levels, Job Qualifications and the Decision to Go Back Home

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  • Carlos Medina

    ()

  • Christian Manuel Posso

    ()

Abstract

This document provides evidence to show that Colombia is a net exporter of 5% of its population with a university or post-graduate degree, while Argentina, Brazil and Chile are net importers of people with a similar level of education. We find that those Colombians who returned home to Colombia from the United States between the years 1990 and 2005 were, on average, less well educated than those who decided to stay in the States, a fact which has contributed to emphasising the positive selection made by Colombians when choosing the US as their destination, and as a result has increased the net flight of human capital (the so-called "brain drain"). The same exercise carried out on the South American countries as a whole leads to an analogous result. Although data does not allow us to include the quality of jobs immigrants are performing in the US as a determinant of the decision to return, it allow us to show that immigrants to the US from Argentina, Bolivia, Chile, Uruguay and Venezuela are generally employed in activities that require better qualifications than those in which Colombian migrants are working, although the Colombians are usually engaged in work which requires better qualifications than the jobs where migrants from Ecuador and Peru are employed. In the case of Colombians, and for the rest of South Americans taken as a whole, their level of education is closely linked to the level of qualification required for the work they do in the United States.

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Bibliographic Info

Paper provided by Banco de la Republica de Colombia in its series Borradores de Economia with number 572.

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Handle: RePEc:bdr:borrec:572

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Keywords: International Migration; Returned Migrants; Task Qualification; Contamination Bias. Classification JEL:F20; F22; C49.;

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References

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  1. Giovanni Peri & Chad Sparber, 2008. "Task Specialisation, Immigration and Wages," Development Working Papers 252, Centro Studi Luca d\'Agliano, University of Milano.
  2. David Autor & Frank Levy & Richard Murnane, 2003. "The skill content of recent technological change: an empirical exploration," Proceedings, Federal Reserve Bank of San Francisco, issue Nov.
  3. Peri, Giovanni & Sparber, Chad, 2010. "Highly-Educated Immigrants and Native Occupational Choice," Working Papers 2010-09, Department of Economics, Colgate University.
  4. Lina Cardona Sosa & Carlos Medina, 2006. "Migration as a Safety Net and Effects of Remittances on Household Consumption: The Case of Colombia," BORRADORES DE ECONOMIA 003219, BANCO DE LA REPÚBLICA.
  5. Alejandro Gaviria, 2004. "Visa Usa: Fortunas Y Extravíos De Los Emigrantes Colombianos En Los Estados Unidos," DOCUMENTOS CEDE 003766, UNIVERSIDAD DE LOS ANDES-CEDE.
  6. Alejandro Gaviria & Carolina Mejía, 2005. "Las varias caras de la diáspora: los nexos de los migrantes colombianos con su país de origen," DOCUMENTOS CEDE 006882, UNIVERSIDAD DE LOS ANDES-CEDE.
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Cited by:
  1. Carlos Medina & Christian Manuel Posso Suárez, 2010. "Technical Change and Polarization of the Labor Market: Evidence for Brazil, Colombia and Mexico," BORRADORES DE ECONOMIA 007269, BANCO DE LA REPÚBLICA.
  2. Luis Miguel Tovar Cuevas & María Teresa Victoria Paredes, 2013. "Migración internacional de retorno y emprendimiento: revisión de la literatura," Revista de Economía Institucional, Universidad Externado de Colombia - Facultad de Economía, vol. 15(29), pages 41-65, July-Dece.
  3. Carolina Arteaga Cabrales, . "Human Capital Externalities and Growth," Borradores de Economia 631, Banco de la Republica de Colombia.
  4. Luis Eduardo Arango & Paola Montenegro & Nataly Obando, 2011. "El desempleo en Pereira: ¿sólo cuestión de remesas?," BORRADORES DE ECONOMIA 007871, BANCO DE LA REPÚBLICA.

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