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Competing or Colluding in a Stochastic Framework

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  • Adriana Breccia
  • Hector Salgado-Banda
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    Abstract

    This paper addresses the issue of anticompetitive and collusive practices in a continuous-time real option framework. We extend the symmetrical duopoly under uncertainty model by Dixit and Pindyck (1994), by granting a patent to the first innovator that files an application. The patent-investment race model is used to focus on long-term collusive agreements signed under a cooperative bargaining structure. The contributions are as follows. First, we show that, in a stochastic framework, competition always leads to different forms of inefficiency. Second, it is proved that, when entrepreneurs can sign long-term contracts via cooperative bargaining, collusion is always beneficial ex-ante since inefficiency disappears. Third, we show that whilst collusion always delays innovation, it does not necessarily delay competition. Depending on a number of economic, as well as firm-specific factors, collusion can actually accelerate competition.

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    File URL: http://www.bbk.ac.uk/ems/research/wp/PDF/BWPEF0504.pdf
    File Function: First version, 2005
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    Bibliographic Info

    Paper provided by Birkbeck, Department of Economics, Mathematics & Statistics in its series Birkbeck Working Papers in Economics and Finance with number 0504.

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    Date of creation: Jan 2005
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    Handle: RePEc:bbk:bbkefp:0504

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    Related research

    Keywords: Bargaining; Collusion; Competition; Geometric Brownian Motion; Nash Demand Game; Stackelberg Game;

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    References

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    1. Richard J. Gilbert and Willard K. Tom, 2001. "Is Innovation King at the Antitrust Agencies?: The Intellectual Property Guidelines Five Years Later," Economics Working Papers EC01-301, University of California at Berkeley.
    2. Crampes, Claude & Langinier, Corinne, 2002. "Litigation and Settlement in Patent Infringement Cases," Staff General Research Papers 5231, Iowa State University, Department of Economics.
    3. Nash, John, 1950. "The Bargaining Problem," Econometrica, Econometric Society, vol. 18(2), pages 155-162, April.
    4. Weeds, Helen, 2002. "Strategic Delay in a Real Options Model of R&D Competition," Review of Economic Studies, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 69(3), pages 729-47, July.
    5. Cooter, Robert D & Rubinfeld, Daniel L, 1989. "Economic Analysis of Legal Disputes and Their Resolution," Journal of Economic Literature, American Economic Association, vol. 27(3), pages 1067-97, September.
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    7. Michael J. Meurer, 1989. "The Settlement of Patent Litigation," RAND Journal of Economics, The RAND Corporation, vol. 20(1), pages 77-91, Spring.
    8. F. M. Scherer & Jayashree Watal, 2002. "Post-TRIPS Options for Access to Patented Medicines in Developing Nations," Journal of International Economic Law, Oxford University Press, vol. 5(4), pages 913-939, December.
    9. Thijssen, Jacco J.J. & Huisman, Kuno J.M. & Kort, Peter M., 2012. "Symmetric equilibrium strategies in game theoretic real option models," Journal of Mathematical Economics, Elsevier, vol. 48(4), pages 219-225.
    10. William E. Kovacic & Carl Shapiro, 2000. "Antitrust Policy: A Century of Economic and Legal Thinking," Journal of Economic Perspectives, American Economic Association, vol. 14(1), pages 43-60, Winter.
    11. Jean O. Lanjouw & Josh Lerner, 1997. "The Enforcement of Intellectual Property Rights: A Survey of the Empirical Literature," NBER Working Papers 6296, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
    12. Suzanne Scotchmer & Jerry Green, 1990. "Novelty and Disclosure in Patent Law," RAND Journal of Economics, The RAND Corporation, vol. 21(1), pages 131-146, Spring.
    13. Katharine E. Rockett, 1990. "Choosing the Competition and Patent Licensing," RAND Journal of Economics, The RAND Corporation, vol. 21(1), pages 161-171, Spring.
    14. Eduardo S. Schwartz, 2003. "Patents and R&D as Real Options," NBER Working Papers 10114, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
    15. Nicholas Bloom & John Van Reenen, 2002. "Patents, Real Options and Firm Performance," Economic Journal, Royal Economic Society, vol. 112(478), pages C97-C116, March.
    16. Marshall, Robert C & Meurer, Michael J & Richard, Jean-Francois, 1994. "Litigation Settlement and Collusion," The Quarterly Journal of Economics, MIT Press, vol. 109(1), pages 211-39, February.
    17. Reiko Aoki & Jin-Li Hu, 1996. "Allocation of Legal Costs and Patent Litigation: A Cooperative Game Approach," Industrial Organization 9612001, EconWPA.
    18. Lambrecht, Bart & Perraudin, William, 2003. "Real options and preemption under incomplete information," Journal of Economic Dynamics and Control, Elsevier, vol. 27(4), pages 619-643, February.
    19. Grenadier, Steven R, 1996. " The Strategic Exercise of Options: Development Cascades and Overbuilding in Real Estate Markets," Journal of Finance, American Finance Association, vol. 51(5), pages 1653-79, December.
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    Cited by:
    1. Di Corato, Luca, 2010. "Profit Sharing under the Threat of Nationalization," Working Papers 58292, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Department of Economics.

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