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The Determinants of Rural Household Food Security in the Punjab, Pakistan: An Econometric Analysis


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  • Bashir, Muhammad Khalid
  • Schilizzi, Steven
  • Pandit, Ram


Pakistan is one of the leading producers of important agricultural commodities in the world with a relatively high proportion of undernourished population (26 %). This study aims to examine the food security trends in Pakistan in general, and to find out the household level food security and its key determinants in the rural areas of the Punjab Province in particular. Both secondary and primary data were used. Secondary data were obtained from Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO), World Bank and Government of Pakistan’s data sources. Primary data were collected from 1152 households in 12 districts of the Punjab province using questionnaire survey. The analysis was done in two phases i.e. (Phase-A) identification of food security trends, at national level and (Phase-B) household food security and its determinants. For Phase-A, graphical representations are produced and for Phase-B primary data were analyzed in two further stages. In stage one the food security status of households was calculated using the calorie intake method. The second stage focused on identifying the socio-economic factors affecting food security using the logistic regression. The secondary data revealed that Pakistan is a food sufficient as well as food secure country at the national level. But at the household level 23 percent of the sample households were measured to be food insecure. Econometric analysis revealed that monthly income, livestock assets, joint family system and education levels (middle, intermediate and graduation) were positively impacting the rural household food security. On the other hand, greater household heads’ age and family size had negative impacts on household food security. It is suggested that income generating opportunities needs to be created along with improvements in secondary and technical education systems, and family planning programs to alleviate food insecurity in the study region.

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Paper provided by University of Western Australia, School of Agricultural and Resource Economics in its series Working Papers with number 122526.

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Date of creation: 28 Mar 2012
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Handle: RePEc:ags:uwauwp:122526

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Keywords: Food security; rural households; logistic regression; Punjab; Pakistan; Agricultural and Food Policy; Community/Rural/Urban Development; Consumer/Household Economics; Food Consumption/Nutrition/Food Safety; Food Security and Poverty; I30; Q18 and R20.;

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  1. Maxwell, Daniel G., 1996. "Measuring food insecurity: the frequency and severity of "coping strategies"," Food Policy, Elsevier, vol. 21(3), pages 291-303, July.
  2. Shiferaw T. Feleke & Richard L. Kilmer & Christina H. Gladwin, 2005. "Determinants of food security in Southern Ethiopia at the household level," Agricultural Economics, International Association of Agricultural Economists, vol. 33(3), pages 351-363, November.
  3. Marijke Verpoorten, 2001. "Imperfect Markets: a Case Study in Senegal," Center for Economic Studies - Discussion papers ces0120, Katholieke Universiteit Leuven, Centrum voor Economische Studiën.
  4. Sidhu, R.S. & Kaur, Inderpreet & Vatta, Kamal, 2008. "Food and Nutritional Insecurity and its Determinants in Food Surplus Areas: The Case Study of Punjab State," Agricultural Economics Research Review, Agricultural Economics Research Association (India), vol. 21(1), June.
  5. Haile, H.K. & Alemu, Zerihun Gudeta & Kudhlande, G., 2005. "Causes Of Household Food Insecurity In Koredegaga Peasant Association, Oromiya Zone, Ethiopia," Working Paper Series 28074, University of the Free State, Department of Agricultural Economics.
  6. Kidane, Habtom & Alemu, Zerihun Gudeta & Kundhlande, Godfrey, 2005. "Causes of household food insecurity in Koredegaga Peasant Association, Oromiya Zone, Ethiopia," Agrekon, Agricultural Economics Association of South Africa (AEASA), vol. 44(4), December.
  7. Nord, Mark, 2005. "Measuring U.S. Household Food Security," Amber Waves, United States Department of Agriculture, Economic Research Service, April.
  8. Amaza, P.S. & Umeh, Joseph Chinedu & Helsen, J. & Adejobi, A.O., 2006. "Determinants and Measurements of Food Insecurity in Nigeria: Some Empirical Policy Guide," 2006 Annual Meeting, August 12-18, 2006, Queensland, Australia 25357, International Association of Agricultural Economists.
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Cited by:
  1. Bashir, Muhammad Khalid & Schilizzi, Steven & Pandit, Ram, 2012. "Livestock and Rural Household Food Security: The Case of Small Farmers of the Punjab, Pakistan," Working Papers 126034, University of Western Australia, School of Agricultural and Resource Economics.
  2. Bashir, Muhammad Khalid & Schilizzi, Steven & Pandit, Ram, 2012. "The Determinants of Rural Household Food Security for Landless Households of the Punjab, Pakistan," Working Papers 126035, University of Western Australia, School of Agricultural and Resource Economics.


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