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The Effect Of Entry By Wal-Mart Supercenters On Retail Grocery Concentration

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Author Info

  • Martens, Bobby J.
  • Dooley, Frank J.
  • Kim, Sounghun

Abstract

The U.S. retail grocery industry shifted from an industry dominated by small grocers serving local markets to one characterized by large retailers present in international markets. Average retail grocery concentration as measured by CR4 increased from 17.8 in 1982 to 43.0 in 1999 (U.S. Census Bureau, 1982; Trade Dimensions Marketing Guidebook, 2000). Wal-Mart's tremendous growth is the catalyst to this change. Although Wal-Mart has been studied from multiple perspectives, little is known about Wal-Mart's effect on market concentration. Understanding Wal-Mart's influence on market concentration is important because an extensive literature shows a pattern linking retail grocery market concentration to increases in retail grocery prices. The objective of this analysis is to evaluate the effects of de novo entry by Wal-Mart Supercenters on retail grocery concentration (CR4). Using a panel dataset complied from Trade Dimensions Marketing Guidebook and Market Scope publications, the effect of Wal-Mart Supercenters on changes in retail grocery concentration was estimated. The results show that existing Wal-Mart Supercenter operations and entry by Wal-Mart Supercenters significantly increase the rate of change in retail grocery concentration as measured by CR4.

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Bibliographic Info

Paper provided by American Agricultural Economics Association (New Name 2008: Agricultural and Applied Economics Association) in its series 2006 Annual meeting, July 23-26, Long Beach, CA with number 21101.

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Date of creation: 2006
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Handle: RePEc:ags:aaea06:21101

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Keywords: Marketing;

References

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  1. Krugman, Paul, 1980. "Scale Economies, Product Differentiation, and the Pattern of Trade," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 70(5), pages 950-59, December.
  2. Levy, David, 1985. "Specifying the Dynamics of Industry Concentration," Journal of Industrial Economics, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 34(1), pages 55-68, September.
  3. Bruce Marion, 1998. "Competition in Grocery Retailing: The Impact of a New Strategic Group on BLS Price Increases," Review of Industrial Organization, Springer, vol. 13(4), pages 381-399, August.
  4. Cotterill, Ronald W, 1986. "Market Power in the Retail Food Industry: Evidence from Vermont," The Review of Economics and Statistics, MIT Press, vol. 68(3), pages 379-86, August.
  5. Curry, B & George, K D, 1983. "Industrial Concentration: A Survey," Journal of Industrial Economics, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 31(3), pages 203-55, March.
  6. Dobson, Paul W & Waterson, Michael, 1997. "Countervailing Power and Consumer Prices," Economic Journal, Royal Economic Society, vol. 107(441), pages 418-30, March.
  7. Masahisa Fujita & Paul Krugman & Anthony J. Venables, 2001. "The Spatial Economy: Cities, Regions, and International Trade," MIT Press Books, The MIT Press, edition 1, volume 1, number 0262561476, December.
  8. Krugman, Paul R, 1981. "Intraindustry Specialization and the Gains from Trade," Journal of Political Economy, University of Chicago Press, vol. 89(5), pages 959-73, October.
  9. Binkley, James K. & Connor, John M., 1996. "Market Competition And Metropolitan-Area Grocery Prices," Working Papers 25988, Regional Research Project NE-165 Private Strategies, Public Policies, and Food System Performance.
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Cited by:
  1. Fernando Borraz & Juan Dubra & Daniel Ferrés & Leandro Zipitría, 2013. "Supermarket Entry and The Survival of Small Stores," Documentos de Trabajo/Working Papers 1303, Facultad de Ciencias Empresariales y Economia. Universidad de Montevideo..

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