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Who Creates Jobs?

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  • Ghani, Ejaz

    ()
    (World Bank)

  • Kerr, William R.

    ()
    (World Bank)

  • O’Connell, Stephen D

Abstract

There is a consensus that jobs are vital in translating economic growth into lasting poverty reduction and social cohesion. But who creates jobs is an understudied field. This Economic Premise argues that there is a strong link between initial levels of young and small firms and subsequent job growth, as evidenced in India. The economic geography of entrepreneurship in India is still evolving. It is worrying that there are too few entrepreneurs in India for its stage of development. Yet there is no question that entrepreneurship works—cities and states that have embraced entrepreneurship have created more jobs. However, the link between entrepreneurship and job growth is not automatic. Cities that have a higher quality of physical infrastructure and a more educated workforce attract many more entrepreneurs. Supportive incumbent industrial structures for input and output markets are strongly linked to higher entrepreneurship rates. There are many policy levers that can be used by policy makers to promote entrepreneurial growth. Instead of being preoccupied with firm chasing—attracting large mature firms from other locations—policy makers should focus on encouraging entrepreneurship in their communities.

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Bibliographic Info

Article provided by The World Bank in its journal Economic Premise.

Volume (Year): (2011)
Issue (Month): 70 (November)
Pages: 1-7

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Handle: RePEc:wbk:prmecp:ep70

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Keywords: jobs; labor; employment; growth; India; poverty reduction; entrepreneurship; workers; firms; infrastructure;

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  1. Edward L. Glaeser & William R. Kerr, 2008. "Local Industrial Conditions and Entrepreneurship: How Much of the Spatial Distribution Can We Explain?," Harvard Business School Working Papers 09-055, Harvard Business School.
  2. John C. Haltiwanger & Ron S. Jarmin & Javier Miranda, 2010. "Who Creates Jobs? Small vs. Large vs. Young," NBER Working Papers 16300, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  3. Kerr, William R. & Nanda, Ramana, 2009. "Democratizing entry: Banking deregulations, financing constraints, and entrepreneurship," Journal of Financial Economics, Elsevier, vol. 94(1), pages 124-149, October.
  4. Ayyagari, Meghana & Demirguc-Kunt, Asli & Maksimovic, Vojislav, 2011. "Small vs. young firms across the world : contribution to employment, job creation, and growth," Policy Research Working Paper Series 5631, The World Bank.
  5. Mercedes Delgado & Michael E. Porter & Scott Stern, 2010. "Clusters and entrepreneurship," Journal of Economic Geography, Oxford University Press, vol. 10(4), pages 495-518, July.
  6. Edward L. Glaeser, 2007. "Entrepreneurship and the City," NBER Working Papers 13551, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  7. Audretsch, David B. & Keilbach, Max C. & Lehmann, Erik E., 2006. "Entrepreneurship and Economic Growth," OUP Catalogue, Oxford University Press, number 9780195183511, September.
  8. Edward L. Glaeser & Stuart S. Rosenthal & William C. Strange, 2009. "Urban Economics and Entrepreneurship," NBER Working Papers 15536, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  9. Ghani, Ejaz (ed.), 2011. "Reshaping Tomorrow: Is South Asia Ready for the Big Leap?," OUP Catalogue, Oxford University Press, number 9780198075028, September.
  10. Mercedes Delgado & Michael Porter & Scott Stern, 2010. "Clusters and Entrepreneurship," Working Papers 10-31, Center for Economic Studies, U.S. Census Bureau.
  11. R. Jason Faberman, 2007. "The relationship between the establishment age distribution and urban growth," Working Papers 07-18, Federal Reserve Bank of Philadelphia.
  12. Arvind Virmani & Danish A Hashim, 2011. "J-Curve of Productivity and Growth," IMF Working Papers 11/163, International Monetary Fund.
  13. Jovanovic, B. & MacDonald, G.M., 1992. "The Life-Cycle of Competitive Industry," Papers 92-09, Rochester, Business - Financial Research and Policy Studies.
  14. Anne Krueger, 2011. "Comments on "New Structural Economics"; by Justin Yifu Lin," World Bank Research Observer, World Bank Group, vol. 26(2), pages 222-226, August.
  15. William Kerr & Ramana Nanda, 2009. "Financing Constraints and Entrepreneurship," NBER Working Papers 15498, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  16. David E. Bloom & David Canning & Jocelyn E. Finlay, 2008. "Demographic Change and Economic Growth in Asia," PGDA Working Papers 4108, Program on the Global Demography of Aging.
  17. Ejaz Ghani, 2011. "Reshaping Tomorrow : Is South Asia Ready for the Big Leap?," World Bank Publications, The World Bank, number 16360, July.
  18. Demirguc-Kunt, Asli & Klapper, Leora F. & Panos, Georgios A., 2009. "Entrepreneurship in post-conflict transition : the role of informality and access to finance," Policy Research Working Paper Series 4935, The World Bank.
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Cited by:
  1. Marco Vivarelli, 2013. "Is entrepreneurship necessarily good? Microeconomic evidence from developed and developing countries," Industrial and Corporate Change, Oxford University Press, vol. 22(6), pages 1453-1495, December.

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